Alliaria petiolata (M. B.) Cavara et Grande
1199. A. petiolata (M. B.) Cavara et Grande, Boll. Orto Bot. Univ. Napoli 111 (1913) 418; Arabis petiolata M.B., Fl. Taur.-Cauc. (1808); A officinalis Andrz. ex M. B., Fl. Tauf .-Cauc. Ill (1819) 445; Hayek, Prodr. Fl. Penins. Balc. 1(1925) 411; Стоян. Стеф., Фл. Бълг. изд. 1, 1(1924) 492 — Лъжичина, чеснова трева
Fam: Cruciferae Juss. (Brassicaceae)
Genus: Alliaria Scop.
Species: Alliaria petiolata (M. B.) Cavara et Grande
English Name: Garlic mustard, Garlic root, Hedge garlic, Sauce-alone, Jack-in-the-bush, Penny hedge and Poor man's mustard
Annual to biennial crops. Stems erect, 20 - 100 (120) cm tall, usually unbranched or only in the upper part slightly branched, cylindrical, ribbed striated, leafy, cyan, in the upper part of bare, in the lower coated idly with unbranched, long, thin, spread to the inclined down whitish hairs. When rubbing the whole plant smells like garlic. Leaves thin, usually bare, only handles unassembled fibrous, less frequently the lower surface of the leaves and the fibers especially longer fibers with rare. Basal and lower stem leaves, kidney or kidney-rounded, uneven wavy blunt toothed to almost entire, with long handles to 12 cm; Stem leaves with short petioles, triangular ovate, often for long pointed tip, at the base most often heart-shaped, wavy intermittent wholesale slightly serrated to cut or roughly sawtooth; middle stem leaves 5 - 17 cm long and 4 - 15 cm wide. Ffirst inflorescences densely thyroid, later in fruits cluster elongated simple or branched, loose, leafless or bracts with only the lower 1 - 3 blossoms. Blossom handles thin, naked, almost equal to the calyx. Sepals 2.5 - 4 mm long, narrow ovate, pale green, with narrow white membranous streak on end, often almost completely pale. Petals white, ovate elongated back, to base narrowed into a short claw, 5 - 6 (8) mm long, almost twice longer than the calyx. Staminal handles strip-flat. Handles pods 4 - 6 (8) mm long, almost as thick pod obliquely deviated from the axis of sadvetieto. Pods (2) 3-6 (7) cm long and 1.5 - 2.5 (3) mm thick, many times longer than the handles, four ridged, poorly slightly pinched like rosary, naked, hair to the tip directed to almost upright and parallel to the stem tip narrowed to 1 - 3 mm in length banister. The covers are hard, convex arched, the upper end pointed, strongly convex mean streak and two weaker anastomosed with her edge lateral veins. Seeds are on the same line, in each well at 5 – 10, 3 - 4 mm long and 1.3 - 1.8 mm wide, elongated cylindrical to nearly cylindrical, at one or both ends often obliquely cut in cross section round, blackish-brown, rough with protruding longitudinal wrinkles.
f. petiolata. Middle stem leaves maximum up to 10 cm long and 8 cm wide. Spread.
f. grandifolia Bolzon, Nuovo Gior. Bot. Ital. XX (1913) 327 Middle stem leaves 12 - 17 cm long and 10 - 15 cm wide. Northeast Bulgaria (Varbitsa village, Shumen).
Economic significance. The seeds contain 27 - 28% fatty drying oil, suitable for technical purposes and 0.51 - 0.96% allyl essential oil. The leaves and roots contain glycosides sinigrin from which is formed allyl oil smell of garlic. It is used for seasoning instead of garlic. In folk medicine the leaves and seeds are used as a diuretic, anthelmintic and means for cough.
„Флора на НР България”, том IV, БАН, София, (1070)
Alliaria petiolata is a biennial flowering plant in the Mustard family, Brassicaceae. It is native to Europe, western and central Asia, and northwestern Africa, from Morocco, Iberia and the British Isles, north to northern Scandinavia, and east to northern Pakistan and western China (Xinjiang).
In the first year of growth, plants form clumps of round shaped, slightly wrinkled leaves, that when crushed smell like garlic. The next year plants flower in spring, producing cross shaped white flowers in dense clusters. As the flowering stems bloom they elongate into a spike-like shape. When blooming is complete, plants produce upright fruits that release seeds in mid-summer. Plants are often found growing along the margins of hedges, giving rise to the old British folk name of Jack-by-the-hedge. Other common names include Garlic Mustard, Garlic Root, Hedge Garlic, Sauce-alone, Jack-in-the-bush, Penny Hedge and Poor Man's Mustard. The genus name Alliaria, "resembling Allium", refers to the garlic-like odour of the crushed foliage. Some people give the species name Alliaria officinalis for this plant.
All parts of the plant, including the roots, give off a strong odour. In 17th century Britain it was recommended as a flavouring for salt fish. It can also be made into a sauce for eating with roast lamb or salad. Early European settlers brought the herb to the New World to use as a garlic type flavoring, and as a good source of vitamins A and C. The herbs medicinal purposes include use as a disinfectant, a diuretic, and sometimes being used to treat gangrene and ulcers. The herb was also planted as a form of erosion control.
The plant is classified as an invasive species in North America. Since being brought to the United States by settlers, it has naturalized and expanded its range to include most of the Northeast and Midwest, as well as southeastern Canada. It is one of the few invasive herbaceous species able to dominate the understory of North American forests and has thus reduced the biodiversity of many areas.
It is a herbaceous biennial plant growing from a deeply growing, thin, white taproot that is scented like horseradish. In the first year, plants appear as a rosette of green leaves close to the ground; these rosettes remain green through the winter and develop into mature flowering plants the following spring. Second year plants grow from 30–100 cm (rarely to 130 cm) tall. The leaves are stalked, triangular to heart-shaped, 10–15 cm long (of which about half being the petiole) and 5–9 cm broad, with a coarsely toothed margin. The flowers are produced in spring and summer in button-like clusters. Each small flower has four white petals 4–8 mm long and 2–3 mm broad, arranged in a cross shape. The fruit is an erect, slender, four-sided pod 4 to 5.5 cm long, called a silique, green maturing pale grey-brown, containing two rows of small shiny black seeds which are released when the pod splits open. A single plant can produce hundreds of seeds, which scatter as much as several meters from the parent plant.
Depending upon conditions, garlic mustard flowers either self-fertilize or are cross-pollinated by a variety of insects. Self-fertilized seeds are genetically identical to the parent plant, enhancing its ability to colonize an area where that genotype is suited to thrive.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Flowering Time: Blooms: IV - VI.
References: „Флора на НР България”, том IV, БАН, София, (1070), Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Distribution in Bulgaria: In the woods, in the outskirts of shady glades, along the forest trails, ravines and wet rocky slopes, shady bushes, mainly in the mountains, of sandy loam soil, but also in the plains, across the field, along fences, hedges and abandoned gardens. Widespread up to 1500 m altitude. (Conspectus of the Bulgarian Vascular Flora) = conspectus&gs_l= Zlc.
Distribution: Europe (north to 68 °), Mediterranean, Southwest Asia, the Caucasus, Central Asia, North Africa. Introduced in North America.
Conservation status and threats: not protected species in Bulgaria by the Biodiversity Law. Законодателство на Република България: Закон за биологичното разнообразие
Medical plant: yes, it is - http://lex.bg/laws/ldoc/2134916096
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