Aristolochia clematitis L.
1131 (1). A. clematitis L., Sp. PI. ed. 1 (1753) 962; Hayek, Prodr. FL Penins. Balc. I (1924) 292 — Обикновена вълча ябълка
Fam: Aristolochiaceae Juss.
Genus: Aristolochia L.
Species: Aristolochia clematitis L.
English Name: (European) birthwort
Description:A perennial plant. Rhizome creeping, much branched. Stems erect, 40 - 80 (100) cm tall, unbranched, rarely slightly branched, naked, slightly curved, light green. Leaves 3 - 15 cm long, successive, naked, broadly ovate or rounded, heart-base, entire, dull, matt green, their strem 1.5 - 5 cm long, 2 - 3 times shorter than the lamina. Flowers collected 2 - 8 in the in the recesses of the leaves. Flower stems 10 - 12 mm long. Perianth 2 - 3 cm long, simple, irregular, similar to the corolla, light yellow; The tube about 12 millimeters long, almost straight or slightly curved, with elongated ovoid, equal to the tube or slightly longer than her tongue. Box 5 - 6 cm long by pear-shaped or rounded, sagging in the immature state fleshy, green. Seeds numerous, flat, triangular, naked, tan, about 1 cm in diameter.
From „Флора на НР България”, том IV, БАН, София, (1970)
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Aristolochia clematitis, the (European) birthwort, is a twining herbaceous plant in the Aristolochiaceae family, which is native to Europe. The leaves are heart shaped and the flowers are pale yellow and tubular in form. The plant seeks light by ascending the stems of surrounding plants.
It was formerly used as a medicinal plant, though it is poisonous, and is now occasionally found established outside of its native range as a relic of cultivation. It is now thought to be the cause of thousands of kidney failures in Romania, Bulgaria, Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia where the plant is thought to be unintentionally consumed through contaminated flour. Urinary tract malignacies among those who have consumed the plant are also reported. The link between renal failure and aristolochic acid, which the plant contains, was discovered after a clinic for obesity in Belgium used herbal products based on another plant of the same genus as a diuretic. After a few months, some of the patients experienced kidney failure.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
* * * Flowering Time: Blooms: V - VII.
References: „Флора на НР България”, том IV, БАН, София, (1970), Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Distribution in Bulgaria: Grow in dry grasslands and ruderal habitats, and as a weed in row crops. Widespread up to 700 m altitude. (Conspectus of the Bulgarian Vascular Flora) = conspectus&gs_l= Zlc.
Distribution: Europe (north of 55 degrees north latitude), Mediterranean, Southwest Asia
Conservation status and threats: not protected species in Bulgaria by the Biodiversity Law. - Biological Diversity Act - http://eea.government.bg/bg/legislation/biodiversity/zbran_22.08.15.pdf
Medical plant: yes, it is - Medicinal Plants Act - http://eea.government.bg/bg/legislation/biodiversity/ZLR_en.pdf
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