Bellis perennis L.
3061 (1). В. perennis L., Sp. Pl. ed. 1 (1753) 886; Hayek, Prodr. Fl. Penis. Balk. 2 (1931) 580; Grierson, Fl. Turkey 5 (1975) 135; Webb, Fl. Eur. 4 (1976) 111; Exs.: Pl. Bulg. Exsicc. № 884 - Обикновена паричка
Fam: Asteraceae (Compositae)
Genus: Bellis L.
Species: Bellis perennis L.
English Name:Common daisy, Lawn daisy or English daisy; Bruisewort and occasionally Woundwort
Perennial plant. Rhizome short, dark brown, cut off, with many cord-like roots and short lateral branches; aboveground stem undeveloped; Leaves in basal rosette, mostly principally back ovoid or shovel-shaped, rarely lance, at the base more or less suddenly narrowed in the winged petiole, obtuse (10) 20 - 60 (300) mm long and 5 - 15 mm wide, almost entire to cut-off, perennial, green, densely to sparsely simple, sometimes glandularly fibrous, with 1 clear midrib. Baskets bell-shaped, with many blossoms, few to single, individually on 4 - 15 (25) cm long, thin, densely to sparsely fibrous petioles, under the baskets conically thickened, protruding directly from the rosette. Enveloping leaflets almost identical, ovate-lance, 3 - 6 mm long and 0.7 - 2.5 mm wide, green, barely membranous at the edge, fine serrated; on the back side and the edge especially on the top simple fibrous; when the fruit ripens upright. External 30 - 50 blossoms radial, with 5 - 7 mm long, white, often purple-red or pink tongue; inner tubular, numerous, yellow. Fruits back ovoid, flattened, rounded at the apex, 1 - 1.5 mm long and 0.7 - 0.8 mm wide, yellow, thickened at the edges and lighter, fibrous.
Economic significance. Decoratively, varieties with showy inflorescences and different colors of pagan flowers have been created.Note. There are differences in the sizes of the baskets.
From: „Флора на Република България”, том XI, БАН, Академично издателство „Проф. Марин Дринов”, София, (2013)
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Bellis perennis is a common European species of daisy, of the family Asteraceae, often considered the archetypal species of that name.
Many related plants also share the name "daisy", so to distinguish this species from other daisies it is sometimes qualified as common daisy, lawn daisy or English daisy. Historically, it has also been commonly known as bruisewort and occasionally woundwort (although the common name woundwort is now more closely associated with Stachys). Bellis perennis is native to western, central and northern Europe, including remote islands such as the Faroe Islands but widely naturalised in most temperate regions including the Americas and Australasia.
It is a perennial herbaceous plant with short creeping rhizomes and rosettes of small rounded or spoon-shaped leaves that are from 3/4 to 2 inches (approx. 2–5 cm) long and grow flat to the ground. The species habitually colonises lawns, and is difficult to eradicate by mowing – hence the term 'lawn daisy'. Wherever it appears it is sometimes considered an invasive weed. It exhibits the phenomenon of heliotropism where the flowers follow the position of the sun in the sky.
The flowerheads are composite, in the form of a pseudanthium, consisting of many sessile flowers about 3/4 to 1-1/4 in (approx. 2–3 cm) in diameter, with white ray florets (often tipped red) and yellow disc florets. Each inflorescence is borne on single leafless stems 3/4 – 4 in (approx. 2–10 cm), rarely 6 in (approx. 15 cm) tall. The capitulum, or disc of florets, is surrounded by two rows of green bracts known as "phyllaries". The achenes are without pappus.
Bellis may come from bellus, Latin for "pretty", and perennis is Latin for "everlasting".
The name "daisy" is considered a corruption of "day's eye", because the whole head closes at night and opens in the morning. Chaucer called it "eye of the day". In Medieval times, Bellis perennis or the English Daisy was commonly known as "Mary's Rose". It is also known as bone flower.
The English Daisy is also considered to be a flower of children and innocence.
Daisy is used as a girl's name and as a nickname for girls named Margaret, after the French name for the oxeye daisy, marguerite.
Bellis perennis has astringent properties and has been used in herbal medicine. In ancient Rome, the surgeons who accompanied Roman legions into battle would order their slaves to pick sacks full of daisies in order to extract their juice; bellum, Latin for "war", may be the origin of this plant's scientific name. Bandages were soaked in this juice and would then be used to bind sword and spear cuts.
Bellis perennis is still used in homeopathy for wounds and after certain surgical procedures,[unreliable source?] as well as for blunt trauma in animals.[unreliable source?] Typically, the plant is harvested while in flower when intended for use in homeopathy.
Bellis perennis flowers have been used in the traditional Austrian medicine internally as tea (or the leaves as a salad) for treatment of disorders of the gastrointestinal and respiratory tract.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Flowering Time: Blooms: (III) IV - VII, fruitful VI - IX. Distribution in Bulgaria: Growing in wet meadows, grassy and bushy places (mostly moistened), in the plains and mountains. Widespread, from sea level to 1500 m above sea level. (Conspectus of the Bulgarian Vascular Flora) = conspectus&gs_l= Zlc.
Distribution: Europe (excluding the northernmost parts, introduced in Finland, Sweden and Norway), the Caucasus, Central and Southwest Asia.
Conservation status and threats: not protected species in Bulgaria by the Biodiversity Law. - Biological Diversity Act - http://eea.government.bg/bg/legislation/biodiversity/zbran_22.08.15.pdf
Medical plant: yes, it is - Medicinal Plants Act - http://eea.government.bg/bg/legislation/biodiversity/ZLR_en.pdf
References: „Флора на Република България”, том XI, БАН, Академично издателство „Проф. Марин Дринов”, София, (2013), Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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