Campanula  bononiensis L.

3025 (16). C. bononiensis L., Sp. Pl. ed. 1 (1753) 165; Hayek, Prodr. Fl. Penins. Balc. 2 (1930) 542; Fedorov, Fl. Eur. 4 (1976) 89; C. bononiensis var. simpliciorVelen., Fl. Bulg. Suppl. 1 (1898) 185 - Болонска камбанка

Fam:   Campanulaceae Adans
Genus:   Campanula L.
Species: Campanula  bononiensis L.
English Name: European bellflower


Perennial plant. Root long, branched, sometimes  spindly thickened. The stem (25) 30 - 110 (150) cm high, upright, simple, less often slightly branched over the middle, spread out up to the densely fibrous; the hairs 0,1 - 0,5 mm long, protruding and adherent. The basal and lower leaves (20) 30 - 90 mm long, 20 - 40 mm wide, above scattered to tick covered with short hairs, below gray green, densely to layered fibrous, evenly shallow to deep serrated, to the top gradually tapered, at the base rounded, with 40 - 90 mm long, narrowly winged stem; the middle stem leaves, ovate or lance, 18 - 80 mm long, 12 - 35 mm wide, sitting down, evenly shallow serrated, upper smaller, all of them fibrous, the hairs 0.3 - 1 mm long, adherent and protruding. The inflorescence just grape, less often branched. Blossom with short stem, one by one or by a group of 2 - 6 per common drift, located in the bosom of the leaves. The shares of the calyx triangular linearly lance to linear lance, 3 - 5 mm long, bare or short scattered bristly, outspread, on the fruits weekly elongated, facing downwards, entire,  or on the edges with, 1 (2) very short little teeth. The corolla funnel shaped, blue violet, 10 - 20 (25) mm long, with  tube about 2 times longer than the shares of the corolla, inside with scattered  soft hairs. The stamens 6 - 9 mm long, with short extended at the base, silky fibrous stems.  The box spherical, downwards, 3 - 5 mm in diameter, goals, opens at the base with 3 pores. The seeds are elliptical, 1 - 1.3 mm long, slightly spliced, pale, with a dark light.

Flowering Time: Blooms: V - VIII, fruitfull: VII - IX.

References: „Флора на Република България”, том XI, БАН, Акад. Изд. „Проф. Марин Дринов”, София, (2013),

Distribution in Bulgaria: Grow in scrub and dry stony meadows, on shallow, poorly developed soils, mostly on the silicate rock base, in the plain, pre-plan and mountains, mainly in the belts of oak forests, in the communities on Quercus dalechampii, Q. frainetto, Q. cerris, Q. pubescens , Carpinus orientalis, Fraxinus ornus, Paliurus spina christi, Colutea arborescens, etc. It is spread from 100 up to 1200 m altitude. (Conspectus of the Bulgarian Vascular Flora) = conspectus&gs_l= Zlc.

Distribution: Middle, East- and South-East Europe, Mediterranean, Caucasus, Southwest (Malaya Asia, Iran) and Central Asia, West Siberia.

Conservation status and threats: not protected species in Bulgaria by the Biodiversity Law. - Biological Diversity Act -

Medical plant: it is not - Medicinal Plants Act -

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