Campanula rapunculus L.
3037 (28). C. rapunculus L., Sp. Pl. ed. 1 (1753) 164; Hayek, Prodr. Fl. Penins. Balc. 2 (1930) 547; Fedorov, Fl. Eur 4 (1976) 80 - Ряповидна камбанка
Fam: Campanulaceae Adans
Genus: Campanula L.
Species: Campanula rapunculus L.
English Name: Rampion bellflower, Rampion or Rover bellflower
Biennial plant. The root is roughened or spindly thickened, the young releases milk juice. Stem 30 - 100 (120) cm high, upright, single, simple or branched in the upper third, less often at the base, with 2 - 3 straight or ascending, almost equivalent stems, scattered to densely short fibers, hairs flat, soft, 0.5 - 1.5 mm long, protruding. Basal leaves back lance or back ovate, 15 - 25 (30) mm long, 8 - 12mm wide, short fibrous, rounded or pointed at the top, on the edges shallowly dentate, at the base gradually narrowed in long stem; medium stem leaves lance to linearly lance, 20 - 40mm long, 3 - 7mm wide, seated, on the edges with distant very short teeth or almost entire, scattered to densely fibrous. Inflorescence narrowly grape, rarely slightly branched, whitish, loose. Blossoms 1, sometimes 2 - 3, on short (5 - 7 mm) or long to 30 mm stems in the bosom of 2 - 3 linear lance leaflets. Calyx shares (10) 15 - 25 mm long, narrowly linear lance, remote from the crown, nude, with the fruit slightly elongated, curved, up to 3.5 times longer than the box, on the edges with 2 - 5, 0, 3 - 2 mm long teeth. The corolla bell-shaped or funnel like, 10 - 20 (25) mm long, pale blue to almost white, with a tube slightly longer or equal to the corolla shares, inside with long scattered silken hairs. Stamens 8 - 9 (10) mm long, with short, basically expanded, silky, fibrous stems. The box is conical, 5 - 8 mm long, skinny, solid, with scattered to dense small white warts, opened with 3 pores in the upper part. The seeds are elliptic to oblong oval, 0.5 - 0.7 mm long, pale brown or yellowish brown with a glossy surface.
Var. rapunculus. Campanula sphaerotrix f. rapunculiformis Stoj. & I. Gancev, Изв. Бот. инст. 1 (1950) 422. Calyx shares on the edges with short, up to 0.3 mm long teeth. Distributed.
Var. lambertiana (DC.) Boiss., Fl. Or. 3 (1875) 940; C. lambertiana DC., Monogr. Camp. (1830) 327; C. rapunculus f. lambertiana (DC.) Jav., Magyar Fl. (1925) 1079; Hayek, I.E. Calyx shares on the edges with over 0.3 - 2 mm long teeth. Rhodope, Thracian Lowland, Tungja Hilly Plain.
Note. According to some authors (Fedorov, 1957), the deeper teeth of the calyx shares appear in plants with a spindle-shaped, not jagged rooted root. Similar correlative dependence in the plants of the Bulgarian flora (here referred to var. lambertiana) can not be convincingly traced due to the limited number of herbarium materials, some of them collected without root.
From: „Флора на Република България”, том XI, БАН, Акад. Изд. „Проф. Марин Дринов”, София, (2013)
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Campanula rapunculus, common name rampion bellflower, rampion, or rover bellflower, is a species of bellflower (Campanula) in the family Campanulaceae.
This species was once widely grown in Europe for its leaves, which were used like spinach, and its parsnip-like root, which was used like a radish. The Brothers Grimm's tale Rapunzel took its name from this plant.
This biennial herbaceous plant reaches on average 40–80 centimetres (16–31 in) of height, with a maximum of 100 centimetres (39 in) . The stem is erect, lightly hairy, branched on the top. The basal leaves are petiolated, ovate, slightly toothed and arranged in a rosette, while the upper leaves are sessile and narrow lanceolate. The hermaphrodite flowers are clustered in a racemose inflorescence, with a bell-shaped, light blue or violet corolla, about two centimeters long. They are arranged along the stem in a fairly narrow one-sided facing cluster. The flowering period extends from May through September. The fruit is a dehiscent capsule in the form of inverted cone with many seeds. The thick root looks like a small turnip and it is edible.
Campanula rapunculus is present in western Asia, northern Africa and in most of Europe, except Iceland, Ireland and Norway. It has been introduced in Denmark, southern Sweden and Great Britain. This species was once widely grown in Europe for its leaves, which were used like spinach, and its parsnip-like root, which was used like a radish.
This species prefers limestone soils and grows in dry meadows, cultivated beds, forests of oaks and pine trees, along roadsides and lane, at an altitude of 0–1,500 metres (0–4,921 ft) above sea level.
- Campanula elatior Hoffmanns. & Link
- Campanula lusitanica f. bracteosa (Willk.) Cout.
- Campanula lusitanica f. racemoso-paniculata (Willk.) Cout.
- Campanula lusitanica f. verruculosa (Hoffmanns. & Link) Cout.
- Campanula lusitanica var. cymoso-spicata (Willk.) Cout.
- Campanula lusitanica auct.
- Campanula verruculosa Hoffmanns. & Link
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Campanula rapunculus L. is an accepted name
From “The Plant List” - www.theplantlist.org/tpl/record/kew-365813
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Flowering Time: Blooms: V - VII, fruitful: VII - VIII.
References: „Флора на Република България”, том XI, БАН, Акад. Изд. „Проф. Марин Дринов”, София, (2013), Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, “The Plant List” - www.theplantlist.org/tpl/record/kew-365813
Distribution in Bulgaria: Grow in meadows, meadows, shrubs, dry grasses and rocks, the most frequent silicate terrain, in shallow, usually poorly developed soils, in the planes, foothills and mountains of the oak belt, in communities of Quercus dalechampii, Q. Frainetto, Q. cerris, Q. pubescens, Carpinus orientalis, Fraxinus ornus, Paliurus spina-christi, Colutea arborescens and others. Widespread, more limited in Northeastern Bulgaria and the Danube Plain, from 200 to 700 (900) m altitude. (Conspectus of the Bulgarian Vascular Flora) = conspectus&gs_l= Zlc.
Distribution: Europe (excluding the Scandinavian countries and islands), the Mediterranean, Southwestern Asia (Asia Minor), the Caucasus (Pre-Caucasus).
Conservation status and threats: not protected species in Bulgaria by the Biodiversity Law. - Biological Diversity Act - http://eea.government.bg/bg/legislation/biodiversity/zbran_22.08.15.pdf
Medical plant: it is not - Medicinal Plants Act - http://eea.government.bg/bg/legislation/biodiversity/ZLR_en.pdf
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