Convolvulus arvensis L.
2410 (7). C. arvensis L., Sp. Pl. ed. 1 (1753) 153; Boiss., Fl. Or. IV (1875) 108; Hayek, Prodr. Fl. Penins. Balc. II (1928) 39; Sa'ad, Mededel. Bot. Mus. (Utrecht) 281 (1967) 214; Stace, Fl. Eur. III (1972) 81 — Полска поветица
Fam: Convolvulaceae Vent.
Genus: Convolvulus L.
Species: Convolvulus arvensis L.
English Name: Field bindweed
Perennial plant. Naked or fibrous. Root spindle-shaped, vertical. The stem at the base is partly stiff, with numerous simple, creeping or twisting quadrilateral, naked or sparsely fibrous, rarely densely fit fibrous, (20-) 40-100 (-200) cm long branches. Leaves herbaceous, with petioles, 2 - 3 times shorter than the lamina, the latter ovate to oblong ovoid, triangular or oblong to linear, 10 - 50 mm long and 6 - 40 mm wide, blunt to pointed or short pointed, at the base lance to sagittal, entire, less often finely toothed or wavy cut, naked or diluted, mainly along the veins (rarely dense) of the spaced adjacent fibrous. Blossoms single or 2 (3) in the grooves of the leaves; the axes of the inflorescences shorter or longer than leaf blades. Bracts filiform, rarely linearly back lance, shorter than the calyxes; blossom petioles up to 4 times longer than calyxes. Sepals unequal; outer ovate ovate to broadly oblong, blunt to incised, short pointed, with narrow, with a narrow, bluish fringe, 4 mm long, naked or sparsely short fibrous; inner ovate, incised, short-pointed, with broad, blunt ciliate margin, 5 - 6 mm long, naked or sparsely hairy at the base, wedge-shaped at the base. Corolla (1.0) 1.5 - 2.5 cm long, 4 - 5 times longer than the calyx, white or pink, the funnel on the outside with 5 longitudinal dark ones, only at the upper part thinned short fibrous bands, naked. Stamens uneven, longest up to 2 times shorter than the corolla; the petioles at the base with glands - adjacent and with petioles. Ovary ovoid, naked (rarely here and there with hairs), at the base with a glabrous cup-shaped disc; the style naked, up to 2.5 times longer than cylindrical stigma. Box spherical, ovate, 6 - 7 mm in diameter, glabrous, three- four-seeded. Seeds 4 mm long and 3 mm wide, ovate lenticular, dark brown, glabrous, grainy rough.
Var. villosus Choisy in DC., Prodr. IX (1845) 406. Leaves densely adherent to fibrous. Distributed.
Var. linearifolius Choisy, I.c. Leaves elongate to linear, 8 - 14 times longer than broad, glabrous or sparsely fibrous. Black Sea coast, Pre-Balkan and Struma valley.
Var. arvensis. Leaves ovate, oblong ovate or triangular, up to 1.5 times longer than broad, glabrous or sparsely fibrous. Distributed.
From „Флора на Н Р България”, том VIII, БАН, София, (1982)
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Convolvulus arvensis (field bindweed) is a species of bindweed that is rhizomatous and is in the morning glory family (Convolvulaceae), native toEurope and Asia. It is a climbing or creeping herbaceous perennial plant growing to 0.5–2 m high. There are two varieties:
- Convolvulus arvensis var. arvensis. Leaves broader.
- Convolvulus arvensis var. linearifolius. Leaves narrower.
Other common names, mostly obsolete, include lesser bindweed, European bindweed, withy wind (in basket willow crops), perennial morning glory, smallflowered morning glory, creeping jenny, and possession vine.
The leaves are spirally arranged, linear to arrowhead-shaped, 2–5 cm long and alternate, with a 1–3 cm petiole. The flowers are trumpet-shaped, 1–2.5 cm diameter, white or pale pink, with five slightly darker pink radial stripes. Flowering occurs in the mid-summer, when white to pale pink, funnel-shaped flowers develop. Flowers are approximately 0.75–1 in. (1.9–2.5 cm) across and are subtended by small bracts. Fruit are light brown, rounded and 1/8 in. (0.3 cm) wide. Each fruit contains 2 seeds that are eaten by birds and can remain viable in the soil for decades. The stems climb by twisting around other plant stems in a counterclockwise direction.
Although it produces attractive flowers, it is often unwelcome in gardens as a nuisance weed due to its rapid growth and choking of cultivated plants. It was most likely introduced into North Americaas a contaminant in crop seed as early as 1739, as an invasive species. Plants typically inhabit roadsides, grasslands and also along streams. Its dense mats invade agricultural fields and reduce crop yields; it is estimated that crop losses due to this plant in the United States exceeded US$377 million in the year 1998 alone.
In one of the tales collected by Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm, Our Lady's Little Glass, this flower is used by Our Lady to drink wine with when she helps free a wagoner's cart. The story goes on to say that "the little flower is still always called Our Lady's Little Glass."
Bindweed contains several alkaloids, including pseudotropine, and lesser amounts of tropine, tropinone, and meso-cuscohygrine.
Control and management
Bindweed is difficult to eliminate. Roots may extend as far as nine feet deep, according to one source, or 30 feet, according to another. New plants may sprout from seeds that are up to 20 years old. New plants can also form from root runners and root fragments.
Methods for controlling bindweed include:
- Physical removal: Bindweed can be controlled by pulling it out by hand or plowing it up every three weeks for up to seven years.
- Mulching: Applying a barrier to block sun may control bindweed. Black plastic, landscape fabric or cardboard covered with a layer of mulch will prevent light from reaching the bindweed. The light-blocking material must be maintained for up to five years. Plants that emerge on the edges of the covered area must be removed.
- Pesticides: Bindweed may be controlled by spraying it with glyphosate. Application is most effective when bindweed is flowering. Glyphosate may also be mixed with 2, 4-D to improve efficacy.
- Biological control: Some insects and mites can eat, distort or stunt bindweed, but do not fully control it.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Flowering Time: Blooms: (IV) V - X, Fruitful: VII - X.
Distribution in Bulgaria: Growing in grassy, stony and shrubby places, weeds in the fields, stormy roads, yards, gardens, trenches, in the lowlands and mountains. Widespread, from sea level up to 1000 m altitude. (Conspectus of the Bulgarian Vascular Flora) = conspectus&gs_l= Zlc.
Distribution: Almost a cosmopolitan, anthropophyte (except Australia).
Conservation status and threats: not protected species in Bulgaria by the Biodiversity Law. - Biological Diversity Act - http://eea.government.bg/bg/legislation/biodiversity/zbran_22.08.15.pdf
Medical plant: yes, it is a medical plant. - Medicinal Plants Act - http://eea.government.bg/bg/legislation/biodiversity/ZLR_en.pdf
References: „Флора на Н Р България”, том VIII, БАН, София, (1982), Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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