Dactylorhiza maculata (L.) Soó

649 (19). О. maculata L. Sp. PI. ed. 1 (1753) 942; Hayek Prodr. Fl. Реnins. Balc. Ill (1933) 397 —Петнист салеп

ex О. maculata L.

Fam:   Orchidaceae Lindl.
Genus:   Dactylorhiza Necker ex Nevski, (1937)
Species: Dactylorhiza maculata (L.) Soó
English Name: Heath spotted-orchidр, Moorland spotted orchid


Dactylorhiza maculata (L.) Soó
Geflecktes Knabenkraut

Beschreibung: Pflanze 15 - 100 cm hoch. Stengel nicht hohl, oberwärts etwas kantig. Laubblätter 5 - 10, aufrecht abstehend, am Stengel verteilt, oberseits dunkelgrün, dunkelbraun bis schwärzlich gefleckt, seltener ungefleckt, unterseits bläulichgrün. Untere Blätter lanzettlich, stumpf oder spitz, 5 - 10 cm lang, 2 - 4 cm breit, größte Breite in der Mitte, nach oben kürzer werdend, tragblattartig. Blütenstand zylindrisch, 5 - 20 cm lang, dichtblütig. Blüten lila, rosa bis weiß. Tragblätter lanzettlich, zugespitzt, die Blüten meist nicht überragend, grün, oft purpurn überlaufen. Sepalen verlängert-lanzettlich, dunkler punktiert, die seitlichen abste­hend bis zurückgeschlagen, das mittlere mit den Petalen helmbildend. Petalen eiförmig-lanzettlich, stumpf, kürzer als die Sepalen. Lippe 5 - 10 mm lang und breit, rundlich, sattelförmig, dreilappig. Mittellappen kürzer oder länger als die rhombischen Seitenlappen. Malzeichnung symmetrisch angeordnet, purpurviolette Flecken oder Linien. Sporn meist etwas kürzer als der Fruchtknoten, schief abwärts gerichtet.
Blütezeit: Im Juni und Juli.
Hohenverbreitung: Von der Küste bis etwa 2200 m.
Standort: Auf feuchten und trockenen Wiesen, an Böschungen, an Straßen- und Waldrändern, in Flach- und Quellmooren, im Gebüsch, in Nadel- und Laubwäldern, auf allen Bodenarten.
Bastarde: Mit D. cordigera, elata, incarnata, majalis, praetermissa, purpurella, russowii G. conopsea, odoratissima, N. nigra, rubra.
Bildnachweis: 5. 7. 1981, Oberstdorf (Allgäu), H. Baumann.


Description: Plant 15 - 100 cm high. Stem not hollow, upper ward somewhat edgy. Leaves 5 - 10, upright spreading, distributed on the stem, dark green on top, dark brown to blackish mottled, rare immaculate, bluish underneath green. Lower leaves lanceolate, obtuse or acute, 5 - 10 cm long, 2 - 4 cm wide, maximum width in the center, in length to upward bract-like. Inflorescence cylindrical, 5 - 20 cm long, with tightly arranged blossoms. Blossoms purple, pink to white. Bracts lanceolate, acuminate, the bracts usually not outstanding, green, often purple overcrowded. Sepals extended-lanceolate, dark dots, the lateral protruding up repulsed, the medium with the petals forming helm. Petals ovate-lanceolate, obtuse, shorter than the sepals. Lip 5 - 10 mm long and wide, round, saddle-shaped, three-lobed. Middle lobe shorter or longer than the rhombic side shares. Drawing arranged symmetrically, purple viole spots or lines. Sporn usually somewhat shorter than the ovary, directed obliquely down.
Flowering time: In June and July.
High spreading: From the coast to around 2200 m. Altitude.
Habitat: On wet and dry meadows, on embankments, on roads and forest edges, in flat and source moorlands, in the bushes, in coniferous and deciduous forests, on all soil types.
Bastards: With D. cordigera, elata, incarnata, majalis, praetermissa, purpurella, russowii G. conopsea, odoratissima, N. nigra, rubra.
Origin pictures: 5. 7. 1981, Oberstdorf (Allgäu), H. Baumann.

From: "Die wildwachsende Orchideen Europas", H. Baumann, S. Künkele, Kosmos, Stuttgart, (1982)

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Perennials. Tubers deep 3 - 4 - lobed. Stem to 60 cm high tightly. Leaves 5 - 9, usually with dark spots. Lanky oval lower back, dumb. The third leaf below usually most widely Lancet, other Lanz apparent or linear lanceolate, sharp, spaced apart, the top leaf of clear remote cluster. Inflorescence initially conical, oval or subsequently lanky. Bracts shorter or longer than the ovary. The blossoms pink, rarely white or purple. Foreign perianth leaflets Lancet, inner linear. The two outer outstretched, others gathered in the helmet. Lip with purple spots, wedge on, tripartite front. Its shares are rhombic side, cut and serrated, split and jagged, triangular average and usually longer. Spur cylindrical or baggy.


In Bulgaria only ssp. macrostachys (Ten.) Röhl. Sitzber. Böhm. Ges. tyiss. I (1911) 117; O. macrostachys Teen. PI. Rar. Sic. 1 (1817) 7; O. saccifera Brogn. in Bory et Chaub. Fl. Pelop. (1838) 60 - Spur short cylindrical, almost in the form of a bag.
From: "Флора на НР България", том 2, БАН, София, (1964),

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Dactylorhiza maculata, known as the heath spotted-orchid[2] or moorland spotted orchid, is an herbaceous perennial plant belonging to the family Orchidaceae. It is widespread in mountainous regions across much of Europe from Portugal and Iceland east to Russia. It is also found in Algeria, Morocco, and western Siberia.[1][3]
Dactylorhiza maculata reaches on average 15–45 centimetres (5.9–17.7 in) of height, with a maximum of 70 centimetres (28 in). These plants are bulbous geophytes, forming their buds in underground tubers or bulbs, organs that annually produce new stems, leaves and flowers. Furthermore these orchids are "terrestrial", because unlike "epiphyte" species they do not live at the expense of other large plants.
This orchid has an erect, glabrous and cylindrical stem, with a streaked surface. The leaves are oblong or oval-lanceolate, with dark ellipsoid-shaped "spots" on the surface (hence the species name). The leaves are amplexicaul and can be either radical (basal) or cauline.
The underground part of the stem has two webbed tubers each one more or less deeply divided into several lobes or tubercles (characteristic of the genus Dactylorhiza), the first one plays the important functions of supplying the stem, while the second one collects nutrient materials for the development of the plant that will form in the coming year.
The inflorescence is 5–15 centimetres (2.0–5.9 in) long and it is composed of flowers gathered in dense spikes. The flowers are placed in the axils of bracts membranous and lanceolate-shaped. Their colors vary from light pink to purple or white with darker streaks mainly on the labellum (sometimes at the margins of tepals). The flowers reaches on average 10–15 centimetres (3.9–5.9 in). The flowers are hermaphrodite and pollinated by insects, especially bumblebees. However the seeds germination is conditioned by the presence of specific fu
The Heath Spotted Orchid prefers sunny places on lowlands or hills, it can be found in slightly damp meadows, but also in the undergrowth of dry forests, in areas with bushes and at the edges of streams. They grow on siliceous and calcareous substrate, at an altitude up to 2,200 metres (7,200 ft) above sea level.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Flowering Time: Blooms: V - VIII

References: "Die wildwachsende Orchideen Europas", H. Baumann, S. Künkele, Kosmos, Stuttgart, (1982), "Флора на НР България", том II, БАН, София, (1964), Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Distribution in Bulgaria: Distributed mainly in the mountains (in the Rila Mountains to 2200 m altitude) in deciduous and coniferous forests, glades, along mountain streams in the bushes and wet meadows. In most of Bulgaria, but mostly k western half of the country. (Conspectus of the Bulgarian Vascular Flora) = conspectus&gs_l= Zlc.

Distribution: Almost throughout Europe, Asia Minor, Yakutia Siberia to North Africa.

Conservation status and threats: not protected species in Bulgaria by the Biodiversity Law. Законодателство на Република България: Закон за биологичното разнообразие

Medical plant: it is not -

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