Datura stramonium L.
Datura stramonium L., Sp. PL, ed. 1 (1753) 179; Hayek, Prodr. Fl. Penins. Balc., II (1929) 103; Moore, Fl. Eur., Ill (1972) 200; D. tatula L., Sp. PI., ed. 2 (1762) 256 — Татул
Fam: Solanaceae Juss.
Genus: Datura L.
Species: Datura stramonium L.
English Name: Jimson weed, Ditch weed, Stink weed,
Loco weed,Korean morning glory, Jamestown weed, Thorn apple, Angel's trumpet, Devil's trumpet,
Devil's snare, Devil's seed, Mad hatter, Crazy tea, Malpitte, the Devil's balls,
Annual plants. Root fusiform with numerous thin branches, white. Stems straight, 30 - 125 (- 200) cm tall, simple or branched in upper part dichotomous, naked, with single hairs or to more or less densely short thick fibrous, green, rarely pale purple. The leaves at the bottom of the stem, from 5.5 - 16.5 (-21) cm long, from 3.5 - 12.5 (-15) cm wide, ovate to broadly elliptical, more or less pointed tip, in wedge base, rarely heart-like, on the edge with large irregular, pointed teeth or relatively deep cut into irregular units, dark green, light green bottom, naked or both sides with single hairs to absently short fibrous, less densely only fibrous veins; petiole equal or to 2 times shorter than the lamina, naked or more or less short fiber, outer leaves 1.5 - 5.4 cm long, 0.7 - 3.5 cm wide, with short petioles closely ovate to elliptic, entire or shallowly toothed wrong, rarely cut into irregular, pointed shares, bare or absently short fibrous. The blossoms of 5.0 - 12.5 cm long, naked or with single hairs densely short hairy petioles with an unpleasant odor. Calyx 2.3 - 4.5 (5.0) cm long, 5.0 - 16 mm wide, pipe-like, slightly swollen at the base, more or less protruding ribs, light green, bare or scattered short fiber; teeth 3.0 - 10 mm long, uneven long, pointed, inside densely fibrous. Corolla 4.7 - 8.5 (-10.0) cm long, 1.8 - 3.3 cm wide, funnel, white or purple, naked; gum teeth 5 , 4.0 - 9.0 mm long, broadly triangular. Stamens shorter than the gum tube. Fruit (2.5-) 3.0 - 6.5 (-7,) cm long and (-2) 2.5 5.0 cm wide, box ovoid, rarely almost round with more or less dense, smooth, almost identical, 15 mm long spikes as in the lower part to the less frequent tip thickeners are sometimes at the base of glandular hairs less box almost smooth, bursting of the base to 4 same partition. Seeds 3.0 - 3.5 mm long, black, mesh wrinkled with more or less deep holes.
Economic importance. Highly toxic and medicinal plant. All its parts contained in the largest amount in the alkaloid hyoscyamine and less atropine and scopolamine. Are widely used in official medicine - partly leaves and seeds are used against asthma, neurasthenia, rheumatism, and as an antispasmodic and sedative. Prepare and special cigarettes too for asthmatics and anti- smoking.
Remark. About the origin of D. stramonium L. There are conflicting opinions but prevails whether environmental or South America. In Bulgaria attempts to breeding work with D. metel and D. irmoxia Mill, to obtain varieties rich skopopamin pharmaceutical needs.
Flowering Time: Blooms . IV-VIII, fruitful VI-X.
References: „Флора на НР България”, том IX, БАН, София, (1989)
Distribution in Bulgaria: In grassy places and ruderal. Distributed from sea level up to about 1650 m altitude. (Conspectus of the Bulgarian Vascular Flora) = conspectus&gs_l= Zlc.
Distribution: Wild America. Ported and naturalized in Europe, the Caucasus, Southwest and Central Asia, Siberia, Indo- Himalayan region.
Conservation status and threats: protected species in Bulgaria by theBiodiversity Law. Законодателство на Република България: Закон за биологичното разнообразие
Medical plant http://lex.bg/laws/ldoc/2134916096
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Datura stramonium 1. Datura stramonium 2. Datura stramonium 3. Datura stramonium 4. Datura stramonium 5.
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