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Family Aristolochiaceae Juss.

Сем. L. КОПИТНИКОВИ — ARISTOLOCHIACEAE JUSS.¹

Fam:   Aristolochiaceae Juss.
English Name: Birthwort family

Description:

Perennial herbaceous or repent woody plants. Leaves successive, simple, entire or more rarely divided into shares with stems, without stipule. Flowers single or in small clusters, located in the bosom of the leaves, with stems, bisexual, correct or incorrect, usually trilobate. Perianth in one, rarely two rounds more or less petal, often brown or bright red colored, at the bottom of connate in a tube, on the top regular 3- or 6-shared, or with single, one-sided, full or parted in the end share . Stamens 6, 12 or numerous, located in one or two rounds, free or fused with the bar in the column. Anthers curved out to the corolla. Ovary inferior, rarely lower half, 4 - 6-brood with many ovules. Bars 3, most commonly 6 or many, free or fused to one another, forming a column of 3, 6 or multisectional stigma. The fruit openable in different ways, rarely not be bursting box.

Table for determining the species

1    Perianth regular, short, entrenched in fruit tube. Flowers located at the top …………...................................................... 1. Wild ginger - Asarum L.
1* Perianth irregular, with long drop off after petal fall tube. The flowers arranged bosom …........................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................................2. Birthwort, Pipevine or Dutchman's pipe - Aristolochia L.
¹ developed by Iv. Assenov

From „Флора на НР България”, том IV, БАН, София, (1970)

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The Aristolochiaceae (English /əˌrɪstəˈloʊkiəsii/) are a family, the birthwort family, of flowering plants with seven genera and about 400 known species belonging to the order Piperales. The type genus is Aristolochia L.

Description

They are mostly perennial, herbaceous plants, shrubs, or lianas. The membranous, cordate simple leaves are spread out, growing alternately along the stem on leaf stalks. The margins are commonly entire. No stipules are present. The bizarre flowers are large to medium-sized, growing in the leaf axils. They are bilaterally or radially symmetrical.

Classification

Aristolochiaceae are magnoliids, a basal group of angiosperms which are not part of the large categories of monocots or eudicots. As of APG IV APG IV (2016), the former families Hydnoraceae and Lactoridaceae are included, because exclusion would make Aristolochiaceae in the traditional sense paraphyletic.[2]
Some newer classification schemes, such as the update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group, place the family Aristolochiaceae in the order Piperales, but it is still quite common, though superseded, for the Aristolochiaceae to be assigned, sometimes with some other families, their own order (Aristolochiales).

Phytochemistry

Many members of Aristolochia and some of Asarum contain the toxin aristolochic acid, which discourages herbivores and is known to be carcinogenic in rats. Aristolochia species are carcinogenic to humans.

Ecology

Pipevine swallowtail butterflies lay their eggs on pipevine (Aristolochia species), and the larvae feed on the plant, but are not affected by the toxin, which then offers the adult butterfly protection against predators.
This page was last modified on 24 July 2016, at 18:24.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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References: „Флора на НР България”, том IV, БАН, София, (1970), Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Distribution in Bulgaria: (Conspectus of the Bulgarian Vascular Flora) = conspectus&gs_l= Zlc.
Distribution:

GENERA:

Genus Aristolochia L. - Birthwort, Pipevine or Dutchman's pipe

Genus Asarum L. - Wild ginger

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