Family Boraginaceae Juss.
Сем. CXII. ГРАПАВОЛИСТНИ — BORAGINACEAE JUSS.¹
Fam: Boraginaceae Juss.
English Name: Forget-me-not, Borage family
Evergreen or deciduous trees, shrubs or subshrubs to perennial to annual herbaceous, simple or mixed - just glandular and fibrous plants (bristly hairs are simple, similar to the hook or verrucose – at the base with white multicellular epidermal groups more or less convex). Leaves on stems or sessile, gathered in basal rosettes and along the stem or just on stem, simple, entire, elliptic, ovate, back, back medullary, lance, shovel-like, naked, single to densely simple or mixed, just glandular and fibrous, edge entire, naked, to a single thick or just simply mixed and glandular -fibrous. Stipule missing. Bracts ribbon or missing. Clusters are breeding - so zymosan (wheatear-like, racemose, semi hood, with few flowers, thin or thick, with many flowers, unilateral or bilateral, strong snail-like wrapped) during flowering be extended, fruit abundance in face. Calyx with five leaflets, correct or incorrect, bell-shaped or tubular, cut unit from fourth to the base, shares ovate, lance, triangular; growing fruit abundance in curing or growths at the base, durable or fall off, just (bristly or bristly and hook) or simply mixed glandular and fibrous. Corolla with five leaflets, correct or not correct, rarely with four leaflets, with short tube, flat, dish-similar to bell-shaped or funnel; shares rounded hole in the tube closed entirely or in part to bold ring, flakes, groups or ring of hairs, glandular appendages. Stamens 5, attached in the middle or at the base of the tube, arranged in a circle - equal or unequal spiral shorter equal to or longer than tube or whole blossom. The blossoms yellow, white, pink, red to purple, light blue to dark blue. Pistil is top, iIt consists of two vege leaves, ovary two slots, with two ovules in each well, shallow four parts, with peak located pedicle or deep four share with pedicle deep between shares (ginobazal). The bar with monomorphic or dimorphic heterostiliya, or bare fiber, whole or atop divided into two or four parts, each of them with plump, head or conical stigma. Fruit with a fleshy or cork epicarp whole or disintegrated into two pits; dry fissionable two (two by two fused - dicotyledonous, equal or unequal or four monocotyledon fruit parts - nuts), rarely due to reduction fruit monocotyledon nut (developed only one unit); wren dorsal - ventral flattened, rounded, smooth, rough or verrucose, with or without spines, with or without wings, in cross-section triangular, elliptical, outer part sharply delimited with ribs or rounded; the place of attachment of the wren to the torus with characteristic trace (scarring) - indentation with a different shape, surrounded by a collar or ring, with or without side grooves or wren with foot or soft white appendage (caruncles). Seeds without endosperm. Of insects pollinated plants; multiply by seed and vegetatively.
¹ The description of the family and table to determine the genera developed by N. Andreev and D. Peev
From „Флора на НР България”, том IX, БАН, София, (1989)
* * *
Boraginaceae, the borage or forget-me-not family, includes a variety of shrubs, trees, and herbs, totaling about 2,000 species in 146 genera found worldwide. 
According to the APG II, the Boraginaceae belongs among the euasterid I group, including the orders Gentianales, Lamiales, and Solanales, but whether it should be assigned to one of these orders or to its own (Boraginales) is still uncertain. Under the older Cronquist system it was included in Lamiales, but it is now clear that it is no more similar to the other families in this order than they are to families in several other asterid orders. The Boraginaceae is paraphyletic with respect to Hydrophyllaceae and the latter is included in the former in the APG II system. In some recent classifications[which?] the Boraginaceae is broken up into several families: Boraginaceae sensu stricto, Cordiaceae, Ehretiaceae, Heliotropiaceae, Lennoaceae, and Hydrophyllaceae.
These plants have alternately arranged leaves, or a combination of alternate and opposite leaves. The leaf blades usually have a narrow shape; many are linear or lance-shaped. They are smooth-edged or toothed, and some have petioles. Most species have bisexual flowers, but some taxa are dioecious. Most pollination is by hymenopterans, such as bees. Most species have inflorescences that have a coiling shape, at least when new. The flower has a usually five-lobed calyx. The corolla varies in shape from rotate to bell-shaped to tubular, but it generally has five lobes. It can be green, white, yellow, orange, pink, purple, or blue. There are five stamens and one style with one or two stigmas. The fruit is a drupe, sometimes fleshy.
Most members of this family have hairy leaves. The coarse character of the hairs is due to cystoliths of silicon dioxide and calcium carbonate. These hairs can induce an adverse skin reaction, including itching and rash in some individuals, particularly among people who handle the plants regularly, such as gardeners. In some species, anthocyanins cause the flowers to change color from red to blue with age. This is may be a signal to pollinators that a flower is old and depleted of pollen and nectar.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
* * *
References: „Флора на НР България”, том IX, БАН, София, (1989), From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Distribution in Bulgaria: (Conspectus of the Bulgarian Vascular Flora) = conspectus&gs_l= Zlc.
Genus Anchusa L. - Bugloss
Genus Buglossoides Moench - Corn-gromwell
Genus Echium L. - Viper's-bugloss
Genus Lithospermum L. - Gromwell
Genus Myosotis L. - Forget-me-not, Scorpion grasses
Genus Pulmonaria L. - Lungwots
Genus Symphytum L. - Comfrey
Genus_Verbascum L. - Mulleins
Back to BEGINNING
© Copy right: K. Nanev© 2012. All rights reserved