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Family Cruciferae Juss. (Brassicaceae)

CEM. LVI. КРЪСТОЦВЕТНИ —CRUCIFERAE JUSS.¹

Fam:   Cruciferae Juss. (Brassicaceae)
English Name: White top, Hoary cress

Description:

Annual to perennial herbaceous plants, rarely semi bushes or small bushes. The leaves are consecutive, without stipule, the basal leaves are often collected in a rosette or, more rarely, only with a rosette of basal leaves and a stem without flowers. Stem leaves with stems or sitting down, sometimes cover the stems, entire or to varying degrees feather-like divided to complicated feathers, most often covered with unbranded or two-piece, dichotomous and star-shaped branched hairs; besides them sometimes with multicellular glandular hairs or glands, rarely naked. The inflorescences, most often cluster or thyroid, usually strongly elongated with the fruit, almost always without stipule. The flowers are usually hermaphrodite, actinomorphic, less zygomorphic. Leaflets of the calyx 4, free, upright almost to more or less spread, located in two mutually perpendicular circles of  2 opposing leaflets; the external in the base often with a baggy extension, in which the nectar is collected.  Petals 4, free, located in the circle 2, alternatively to the leaflets of the calyx, are rarely missing, most often with a long claw. Usually the stamens are 6, less often 4, 2 or 0; The external two with shorter stems; the inner 4, with longer stems. The stems of the stamens are often winged or with teeth. Nectar glands of varying size, shape, coloring around the stamens and pistil base and often connected to a common ring. The upper carpophore, syncarpine, formed by two fruiting, two posterior placentas, usually biweekly by the formation of the tiny false plaque from the joining of the placenta; sometimes very multi-faceted. The seedlings most often numerous with a campylotropic position. The stigma is spherical, disk-shaped to two-piece. Fruit usually spreads a box of 2 lids (pod or spoon), sometimes a non-open box, divided into semen segments; Less often transversely articulated with open or unspoken members. Seeds without endosperm.

Table for determination of the genera

1    The fruit is flat, hanging, not more than 12 times longer than wide ............................................................................................................................ 2
1* The fruit is erect or spread, less often hanging and flat, but then led 12 times longer than wide .................................................... .............................. 3
2   Plants with branched or starred hairs. Fruit 2 - 5 mm long. Leaves do not cover stem …….............................................................. 30. - Clypeola L.
2* Plants naked or with little and unbroken hairs. Fruit 7 - 25 mm long. Leaves stalking ………… .............................................................. 6. - Isatis L.
3   The fruit transversely divided into 2 or more single-stranded members, often ripened by separation; The lower member is not scattered, usually sterile and stalked or with 1 - 3 seeds; The upper member is non-disruptive or disjointed, fertile, single-sided, or bifenically-lipped and disintegrating into single or double-segments ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4
3* The fruit is longitudinally divided by a 2-sided partition and cracks along the length with 2 caps or hard and non-slip, sometimes divided into several parts ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. ......... 8
4   The stigma is deeply divided. Plants with glandular hairs ............................................................................................ 14. - Chorispora R. Br. ex DC
4* The stigma  entireor poorly divided. Plants without glandular hairs ............................................................................................................................ 5
5   The upper part of the fruit is spherical or ovate ..................................................... .................................................................................................. 6
5* The upper small member of the fruit is spherical  or egg-shaped ............................................................................................................................... 7
6   The upper small member of the fruit without small nose. The stigma sitting down. Petals white ........................................................... 53. - Crambe L.
6* The upper part of the fruit with a conical or cylindrical small nose. Petals yellow …………......... .......................................... 52. - Rapistmm Crantz
7   The upper part of the fruit not more than 3 times longer than a broad, four-rib wedge, with one seed ............................................... 51. - Cakile Mill.
7* The upper part of the fruit at least 5 times longer than broad, cylindrical and often tucked between the seeds ................................. 55. - Raphanus L.
8    The fruit is a pod (at least three times longer than wide) .......................................................................................................................................... 9
8* The fruit is a little pod (less than three times as long as wider) ................................................................................................................................ 45
9    Nude plants or covered only with unbranched hairs .............................................................................................................................................. 10
9* Fibrous plants (at least at the bottom) with star-shaped, branched or mixed, branched and unbranched hairs .......................................................... 29
10  The leaflets of the calyx erect (Calyx closed) ........................................................................................................................................................ 11
10* The leaflets of the calyx more or less spread out .................................................................................................................................................. 15
11   Leaves simple, entire, slightly fleshy .......................................... .......................................................................................................................... 12
11* At least some of the leaves jagged, cut into pieces or bracket-similar to feather-like divided  ....................……………………………………… 13
12   Stem leaves heart-stemming. Nude annual plants ................................................................................................................. 46. - Conringia Adans.
12* The stem leaves do not cover the stem. Perennial or two-year plant ….................................................................................…….. 48. - Brassica L.
13   Stigma deep duple ................................................................ ............................................................................................................................. 14
13* Stigma globose, entire or weakly duple ......................................................................................................................................... 48. - Brassica L.
14   The pod with sword-like little nose. The leaves of the stem feather-like divided ……………........................................................... 50. - Eruca Mill.
14* The pod without little nose. Medium and upper stem leaves simple, serrated or jagged ………...................................................... 10. - Hesperis L.
15 (10*) The caps of the pod with 3 - 7 streaks ................................................................................................................ ........................................ 16
15* The caps of the pod with only one middle streak or without a streak .................................................................................................................... 18
16   Petals White ............................................................................................................................................................................... 3. - Alliaria Scop.
16* Petals yellow ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 17
17   The pod with 3 - 7 streaks; little nose 10 mm or longer ..................................................................................................................... 40.  Sinapis L.
17* The pod with 3 streaks, without a little nose ............................................................................................................................... 1. - Sisymbrium L.
18   The pod not more than 7 times longer than wide ....................................................................................................................... 17. - Rorippa Scop.
18* The pod more than 7 times longer than wide ……………………………………................................................................................……........ 19
19   Caps of the pod with or without weakly defined middle sterak ............................................................................................................................. 20
19* The caps of the pod with a clearly defined middle vein ………………………................................................................................………….. .. 24
20   Caps flat, pod well flattened ................................................................................................................................................................................ 21
20* Caps protruded, the pod slightly flattened ............................................................................................................................................................ 22
21   Caps burst explosively at maturity and spirally sprout from base ................................................................................................ 19. - Cardamine L.
21* The caps are not twisted spirally when bursting ................................................................................................................................. 22. - Arabis L.
22   Petals white ....................................................................................................................................................................... 18. - Nasturtium R. Br.
22* Petals yellow ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 23
23   Inflorescence thyroid. Seeds in a row in each nest .................................................................................................................. 16. - Barbarea R. Br.
23* Inflorescence is not thyroid. Seeds in two rows in each nest ...................................................................................................... 17. - Rorippa Scop.
24 (19*) The pod is strongly flattened ..................................................................................................................................................... 22. - Arabis L.
24* The pod is slightly flattened or with protruding caps ............................................................................................................................................. 25
25   Petals yellow, sometimes with violet streaks ........................................................................................................................................................ 26
25* Petals white ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 28
26   The seeds in two rows in each nest ......................................................................................................................................... 47. - Diplotaxis DC.
26* Seeds in one row in each nest ............................................................................................................................................................................. 27
27   The pod caps rounded on the back. Medium nectal glands are missing; Lateral nectal glands prismatic ........................................... 48. - Brassica L.
27* The caps of the pod are keel-similar. Medium nectal glands developed; Lateral nectal glands semi-moon or bipolar ….……... 16. - Barbarea R. Br.
28   Large perennial to 2 m high plant. Primary leaves 10 - 40 cm ........................................................................................................ 48. - Brassica L.
28* Lesser annual or perennial to 50 cm tall plants. The leaves at the base less than 10 cm long ......................................................... 1. - Sisymbrium L.
29 (9*) The stigma is deeply duple; Partitions sometimes upright and mature in the shape of a little nose of the pod ...................................................... 30
29* The stigma globose, entire or week duple  ......................................................................................................................................... ................. 34
30   The shares of the stigma with a small back or a little horn ...................................................................................................... 13. - Matthiola R. Br.
30* The shares of the stigma without protrusions or little horn ..................................................................................................................................... 31
31   The banister at least 1/2 of the length of the rest of the pod ..................................................................................... 14. - Chorispora R. Br. ex. DC
31* The banister less than half the length of the rest of the pod or missing .................................................................................................................... 32
32   Petals yellowish or brown ............................................................................................................................................................ 10. - Hesperis L.
32* Petals white, pink or violet, rarely red .................................................................................................................................................................. 33
33   The banister short, the stigma with free shares .............................................................................................................................. 10. - Hesperis L.
33* The banister is missing, the shares of the stigma erect and mature ......................................................................................... 11. - Malcolmia R. Br.
34   Leaves 2 - 3 times feather-like divided  ................................................................................................................ 2. - Descurainia Webb et Berth.
34* The leaves are entire or once feather-like divided ..................................................................................................................... .......................... 35
35   Petals yellow ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 36
35* Petals white, violet, pink or red ........................................................................................................................................................................... 39
36   The banister at least 1/2 of the length of the rest of the pod; the pod for the most part with two-piece hairs ................................. 9. - Syrenia Andrz.
36* The banister no longer than 1/3 of the length of the rest of the pod ....................................................................................................................... 37
37   The stem leaves do not cover the stem ......................................................................................................................................... 8. - Erysimum L.
37* The stem leaves cover the stem and are arrow-shaped or heart-shaped ............................................................................................................... 38
38   Seeds of one row in each nest ......................................................................................................................................................... 22. - Arabis L.
38* The seeds in two rows in each nest ................................................................................................................................................. 21. - Turritis L.
39   The banister at least 2,5 mm long .......................................................................................................................................... 23. - Aubrieta Adans.
39* The banister not longer than 2 mm ...................................................................................................................................................................... 40
40   The pod less than 10 times longer than broad ……………………...............................................................................………….... 31. - Draba L.
40* The pod is at least 10 times longer than wide ....................................................................................................................................................... 41
41   The caps of the pod are flat, less keel-similar ....................................................................................................................................................... 42
41* The caps of the pod are convex, rounded or angled ............................................................................................................................................. 43
42 Lower and middle stem leaves sitting or almost seated, entire or deeply serrated ................................................................................. 22. - Arabis L.
42* Lower and middle stem leaves with clear stems, often feather-like divided ............................................. 20. - Cardaminopsis (C.A. Meyer) Hayek
43   The pod fibrous .................................................................................................................................................................... 12. - Maresia Pomel
43* The pod naked ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 44
44   The pod less than 2 cm ……………………………............................................................................…………... 4. - Arabidopsis (DC.) Heynh.
44* The pod 3 - 8 cm long ................................................................................................................................................................... 21. - Turritis L.
45 (8*) The pod back pigeon with 3 sockets; The upper 2 disposed one next to the other, sterile, the bottom is one seed ..................... 5. - Myagrum L.
45* The pod without 2 sterile nests ............................................................................................................................................................................ 46
46   The pod with 4 longitudinal wings or ribs or covered with uneven bearded bumps ……….…............................................................. 7. - Bunias L.
46* The pod without 4 wings or ribs and not covered by uneven beard bumps …………..............................................................................………. 47
47   The pod flattened parallel to the partition ............................................................................................................................................................. 48
47* The pod is flattened perpendicular to the partition ................................................................................................................................................ 67
48   The ovary is surrounded at the base by a glandular interstitial ring. Small aquatic plant. All leaves are at the base ........................... 45. - Subularia L.
48* The ovary without a glandular ring. Terrestrial plants or if they are aquatic, then all leaves are not basic .............................................................. .. 49
49   Naked or with unbranched hairss ........................................................................................................................................................................ 50
49* Plants with hairs, some of which are branched or starred ..................................................................................................................................... 55
50   The leaflets of the calyx erect or almost upright (calyx closed) .............................................................................................................................. 51
50* The leaflets of the calyx more or less spread (little or very open calyx) ……………............................................................................................. 52
51   Petals long (10) 12 mm or more. The little pod 20 - 90 mm long and (10) 15 - 35 mm wide ........................................................... 24. - Lunaria L.
51* Petals not more than 10 mm long. The bellows not more than 12 mm long and 8 mm wide ................................................. .. 34. - Camelina Crantz
52   Petals yellow ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 53
52* Petals white ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 54
53  All or at least some of the leaves are pinnate, spiced or roughly serrated. The stem leaves numerous .......................................... 17. - Rorippa Scop.
53* Leaves are usually entire. Stem leaves are usually missing …………....................................................................................……….. 31. - Draba L.
54   The pod with a short, wide, dull nose. Petals different; The outer ones are clearly longer than the inner ones ........................... 54. - Calepina Adans.
54* The pod without the nose, sometimes with a retaining column. The petals are almost the equal ................................................. 33. - Kernera Medic.
55   The leaflets of the calyx erect (calyx closed) ........................................................................................................................................................ 56
55* The leaflets of the calyx more or less spread (calyx open) .................................................................................................................................... 59
56   The pod unobtrusive, almost spherical, sometimes flattened, with a roughly rounded surface ......................................................... 35. - Neslia Desv.
56* The pod obtrusive, with a different shape, without mesh roughness ....................................................................................................................... 57
57   The pod with a Carpophore in the base ................................................................................................................................. 25. - Alyssoides Mill.
57* The pod sitting .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 58
58   The pod flattened. Petals with short claw ……………………................................................................................………….. 27. - Fibigia Medic.
58* The pod bulging .................................................................................................................................................................. 34. - Camelina Crantz
59   Petals deep in two-sided .................................................................................................................................................................................... 69
59* Petals entire or shallowly cut ............................................................................................................................................................................... 64
60   Plant with rosette leaves only ..................................................................................................................................................... 32. - Erophila DC.
60* Plant with rosette and with stem leaves ................................................................................................................................................................ 61
61   Petals white ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 62
61*'Petals yellow ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 63
62   Seeds 2 - 6 in each nest, winged or edge. The long column  ...................................................................................................... 28. - Berteroa DC.
62* Seeds 1 - 2 in each nest, without wings and edges. The long column  short ....................................................... 29. - Lepidotrichum Vel. et Bornm.
63   Petals incised more than 1/3 of their length …………………………...............................................................................……. 28. - Berteroa DC.
63* Petals shallowly incised ................................................................................................................................................................ 26. - Alyssam L.
64   Yellow petals ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 65
65* Petals white, pink or red ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 66
65 The outer leaflets of the calyx are bagged expanded at the base; ovary with 4 - 8 segments in each nest .................................... 25. - Alyssoides Mill.
65* External leaflets of the calyx without a baggy extension at the base; Ovary with 1 - 2 (6) segments in each nest ............................... 26. - Alyssum L.
66   The pod does not burst with 4 longitudinal streaks, with two nests, with one seed in each nest ................................................ 15. - Euclidium R. Br.
66* The pod spreads without 4 longitudinal streaks, multi-seed; Seeds in two rows .................................................................................. 31. - Draba L.
67 (47*) Fruit double, kidney or heartbeat ................................................................................................................................................................. 68
67* Fruit is not double, kidney or heart, sometimes backward heartbeat ……………….................................................................................…….... 69
68   Stem leaves sitting down, covering the stem. The petals 4 mm long ….................................................................................…. 43. - Cardaria Desv.
68* Stem leaves with short stems. Petals 0,5 – 1,5 mm long ....................................................................................................... 44. - Coronopus Haller
69   The outer petals clearly longer than the inner ..................................................................................................................................... 41. - Iberis L.
69* Petals equally long .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 70
70   Threads of the stamens with a wing or denticular appendage ................................................................................................................................ 71
70* Threads of the stamens without wing or appendage .............................................................................................................................................. 72
71   The leaves entire, are not collected in a basal rosette. The sepals upright …………………............................................... 40. - Aethionema R. Br.
71* The leaves are usually feather-like divided, most often collected in the basal. rosette. sepals partially outspread ...................... 38. - Teesdalia R. Br.
72   The caps of the pod winged or narrowly keel-shaped  ......................................................................................................................................... 73
72* The caps of the pod are not winged or keel-shaped ………………………............................................................................…………………. 74
73   Seed single, hanging from the top of each nest .............................................................................................................................. 42. - Lepidium L.
73* Seeds 1 - 8 in each nest .................................................................................................................................................................. 39. - Thlaspi L.
74   The pod triangular- heartbeat ................................................................................................................................................ 36. - Capsella Medic.
74* The pod is not triangular- heartbeat ……………………...............................................................................……......... 37. - Hornungia Reichenb.

¹ The characteristics of the family and the genus chart developed by Iv. Assenov

From „Флора на НР България”, том IV, БАН, София, (1970)

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Brassicaceae or Cruciferae is a medium-sized and economically important family of flowering plants commonly known as the mustards, the crucifers, or the cabbage family.
The name Brassicaceae is derived from the included genus Brassica. The alternative older name, Cruciferae (English /kruːˈsɪfəri/), meaning "cross-bearing", describes the four petals of mustard flowers, which resemble a cross. Cruciferae is one of eight plant family names without the suffix -aceae that are authorized alternative names (according to ICBN Art. 18.5 and 18.6 Vienna Code).
The family contains 372 genera and 4060 accepted species.[2] The largest genera are Draba (440 species), Erysimum (261 species), Lepidium (234 species), Cardamine (233 species), and Alyssum (207 species).
The family contains the cruciferous vegetables, including species such as Brassica oleracea (e.g., broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, kale, collards), Brassica rapa (turnip, Chinese cabbage, etc.), Brassica napus (rapeseed, etc.), Raphanus sativus (common radish), Armoracia rusticana (horseradish), Matthiola (stock) and the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana (thale cress).
Pieris rapae and other butterflies of the family Pieridae are some of the best-known pests of Brassicaceae species planted as commercial crops.

Taxonomy

The family is included in the Brassicales according to the APG system. Older systems (e.g., Arthur Cronquist's) placed them into the Capparales, a now-defunct order that had a similar definition.
This family comprises about 375 genera and 2500 species all over the world; 94 species of 38 genera are found in Nepal. The plants are mostly herbs. A close relationship has long been acknowledged between the Brassicaceae and the caper family, Capparaceae, in part because members of both groups produce glucosinolate (mustard oil) compounds. The Capparaceae as traditionally circumscribed were paraphyletic with respect to Brassicaceae, with Cleome and several related genera being more closely related to the Brassicaceae than to other Capparaceae.[3] The APG II system, therefore, has merged the two families under the name Brassicaceae. Other classifications have continued to recognize the Capparaceae, but with a more restricted circumscription, either including Cleome and its relatives in the Brassicaceae or recognizing them in the segregate family Cleomaceae. The APG III system has recently adopted this last solution, but this may change as a consensus arises on this point. This article deals with Brassicaceae sensu stricto, i.e. treating the Cleomaceae and Capparaceae as segregated families.


 Brassicaceae s.l. 

 

Capparaceae

 

 

 

Cleomaceae

 

 

Brassicaceae s.s.

 

 

 

Description

The family consists mostly of herbaceous plants with annual, biennial, or perennial lifespans. However, around the Mediterranean, they include also a dozen woody shrubs 1-3 m tall, e.g. in northern Africa (Zilla spinosa and Ptilotrichum spinosum), in the Dalmatian islands (Dendralyssum and Cramboxylon), and chiefly in Canarias with some woody cruciferous genera: Dendrosinapis, Descurainia, Parolinia, Stanleya, etc..
The leaves are alternate (rarely opposite), sometimes organized in basal rosettes; in rare shrubby crucifers of Mediterranean their leaves are mostly in terminal rosettes, and may be coriaceous and evergreen. They are very often pinnately incised and do not have stipules.
The structure of the flowers is extremely uniform throughout the family. They have four free saccate sepals and four clawed free petals, staggered. They can be disymmetric or slightly zygomorphic, with a typical cross-like arrangement (hence the name Cruciferae). They have six stamens, four of which are longer (as long as the petals) and are arranged in a cross like the petals and the other two are shorter (tetradynamous flower). The pistil is made up of two fused carpels and the style is very short, with two lobes. The ovary is superior. The flowers form ebracteate racemose inflorescences, often apically corymb-like.[clarification needed]
Pollination occurs by entomogamy; nectar is produced at the base of the stamens and stored on the sepals.
The fruit is a peculiar kind of capsule named siliqua (plural siliquae). It opens by two valves, which are the modified carpels, leaving the seeds attached to a framework made up of the placenta and tissue from the junction between the valves (replum). Often, an indehiscent beak occurs at the top of the style and one or more seeds may be borne there. Where a siliqua is less than three times as long as it is broad, it is usually termed a silicula. The siliqua may break apart at constrictions occurring between the segments of the seeds, thus forming a sort of loment (e.g., Raphanus), it may eject the seeds explosively (e.g., Cardamine) or may be evolved in a sort of samara (e.g., Isatis). The fruit is often the most important diagnostic character for plants in this family. Most members share a suite of glucosinolate compounds that have a typical pungent odour usually associated with cole crops.

Uses

Lunaria annua with ripe seed pods

Smelowskia americana is endemic to the midlatitude mountains of western North America.
The importance of this family for food crops has led to its selective breeding throughout history. Some examples of cruciferous food plants are the cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, turnip, rapeseed, mustard, radish, horseradish, cress, wasabi, and watercress.
Main article: Cruciferous vegetables
Matthiola (stock), Cheiranthus, Lobularia, and Iberis (candytufts) are appreciated for their flowers. Lunaria (honesty) is cultivated for the decorative value of the translucent replum of the round silicula that remains on the dried stems after dehiscence.
Capsella bursa-pastoris, Lepidium, and many Cardamine species are common weeds.
Isatis tinctoria (woad) was used in the past to produce the colour indigo.
Arabidopsis thaliana is a very important model organism in the study of the flowering plants (Angiospermae).

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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References: „Флора на НР България”, том IV, БАН, София, (1970), Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Distribution in Bulgaria: (Conspectus of the Bulgarian Vascular Flora) = conspectus&gs_l= Zlc.
Distribution:

GENERA:

Genus Alliaria Scop. EN.html - Garlic mustard

Genus Aubrieta Adans EN.html - Aubretia

Genus Brassica L. EN.html - Cabbage

Genus Bunias L. EN.html - Rocket ? Warty-cabbage

Genus Cardaria Desv. EN.html - ? ? ?

Genus Erysimum L. EN.html - Wallflower

 

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