Fragaria vesca L.
1555 (1). F. vesca L., Sp. Pl. ed. 1( 1753) 494; Hayek, Prodr. Fl. Penins. Balc. 1 (1925) 671; Tutin, Fl. Eur. II (1968) 47; Exs.: Pl. Bulg. Exsicc. No 649 — Горска ягода
Fam: Rosaceae Juss.
Genus: Fragaria L.
Species: Fragaria vesca L.
English Name: Wild strawberry, Woodland strawberry, Alpine strawberry, Carpathian strawberry, European strawberry, or Fraisier des bois
Perennial plant. Rhizome horizontal or oblique, scaly. From the axils of the leaves originate long, rooting in the nodes, creeping aboveground shoots ("въси"). The leaves are triple, collected in a leaf rosette; 5 - 3,5 cm wide, ovate or back ovoid to rhombic, with 6 - 13 large, triangular, almost ovate teeth on each side, ending with a small reddish tip, green and scattered fibrous above, grayish green below, fit fibrous; top leaflate lance, long pointed, entire, diffusely fibrous, only near the leaf petiole densely erect or closely fibrous. Flowering stems 5 - 30 cm tall, leafless, almost erect -rarely rising at the base, slightly longer than the leaves, in the lower parts with spreading, in the upper with adjacent hairs Flowers about 15 (20) mm in diameter, usually bisexual, collected in thyroid inflorescences; flower petioles long, with close-fitting or upward silky shiny hairs. The sepals are fibrous, spreading or curved backwards at the fruit; outer linear or lance, equally long with inner, last triangular, acute or shortly pointed. Petals 4 - 8 (10) mm long, ovoid or rounded, with claw, pure white. Stamens 20, equal in length to the styles or often longer. Ovaries numerous, naked. The stiles are lateral. The flower bed with a bare or more or less fibrous, smooth, barely concave upper surface; after flowering it enlarges and grows into a fleshy false strawberry, up to 2 cm long, ovoid, globose or almost spherical, bright red in the mature state, sweet, easely separated. Nuts located on the entire surface of the overgrown flower bed, ovoid, about 0.8 to 1.5 mm long, brown.
From: „Флора на НР България”, том V, БАН, София, (1973)
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Fragaria vesca, commonly called wild strawberry, woodland strawberry, Alpine strawberry, Carpathian strawberry, European strawberry, or fraisier des bois, is a perennial herbaceous plant in the rose family that grows naturally throughout much of the Northern Hemisphere, and that produces edible fruits.
Five to eleven soft, hairy white flowers are borne on a green, soft-hairy 3–15 centimetres (1.2–5.9 in) stalk that usually lifts them above the leaves. The light-green leaves are trifoliate (in threes) with toothed margins. The plant spreads mostly by means of runners (stolons), but the seeds are viable and establish new populations.
Typical habitat is along trails and roadsides, embankments, hillsides, stone- and gravel-laid paths and roads, meadows, young woodlands, sparse forest, woodland edges, and clearings. Often plants can be found where they do not get sufficient light to form fruit. In the southern part of its range, it can only grow in shady areas; further north it tolerates more sun. It is tolerant of a variety of moisture levels (except very wet or dry conditions). It can survive mild fires and/or establish itself after fires.
Although F. vesca primarily propagates via runners, viable seeds are also found in soil seed banks and seem to germinate when the soil is disturbed (away from existing populations of F. vesca).
Its leaves serve as significant food source for a variety of ungulates, such as mule deer and elk, and the fruit are eaten by a variety of mammals and birds that also help to distribute the seeds in their droppings.
It is a larval host to the two-banded checkered skipper.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Flowering Time: Blooms: V - VIII (sometimes secondary flowering IX - X), fruitful: VI - VIII.
Distribution in Bulgaria: Located in forests, bushes, forest meadows and scree, in the plains and mountains. Widespread, from sea level to 2000 m altiude. (Conspectus of the Bulgarian Vascular Flora) = conspectus&gs_l= Zlc.
Distribution: Europe, Asia, North Africa. Moved to Japan, North and South America.
Conservation status and threats: not protected species in Bulgaria by the Biodiversity Law. - Biological Diversity Act - http://eea.government.bg/bg/legislation/biodiversity/zbran_22.08.15.pdf
Medical plant: no, it is not - Medicinal Plants Act - http://eea.government.bg/bg/legislation/biodiversity/ZLR_en.pdf
References: „Флора на НР България”, том V, БАН, София, (1973), Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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