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Genus Knautia L.

Fam:   Dipsacaceae - Teasel Family
Genus:   Knautia L.
English Name: Widow flower, Scabiou


Description:

Herbaceous plants with opposite leaves. Blossoms collected in heads, enveloped by several leafs; outer cup with a short stem, flattened, tetrahedral; the mouth of the inner cup with an uneven and often very short 8 - 16 teeth. Corolla with a long tube, with four parts; 4 stamens; ovary inferior, single nest; bar with bipartite stigma.
1    Well-developed heads with about ten blossoms; sheets that wrap flower heads identical to each other. Dark purple color................. .................................................................................................................……………………………………..  (1) K. orientalis L.
1*. Well-developed heads of an average of 20 or more blossoms; sheets that wrap flower heads, unequal to each other. Blossoms with. another color .............................................................................................................................................................................. 2
2    Annual; the blossoms blue or violet ............................................................................................................................................ 3.
2*. Perennial; blossoms yellow, pink or red; internal cup with stem short and long setae (except hair) on his ledge ..............................4.
3. Calyx with 12 - 24 tabs. Leaves with elliptical shape, whole or lyra-like chopped .......................... ... (3) K. integrlfolia (L.) Bertol.
3*.Calyx with 8 - 10 bristles. Leaves lance or linear, with rare teeth or pinnated ……………….................... (2) K. byzantina Fritsch.
4.  Stem leaves usually pinnated cut, rarely all, but then the widest in its upper third. Rhizome vertically. After the overblown forms a...... rosette of leaves wintering  ............................................................................................................................................................ 5.
4*. Stem leaves intact and widest in the middle or at the bottom. Rhizome horizontal ...................................................................... 7.
5.   Blossms yellow, rarely yellow - pink .................................................................................. (5) K. ambigua (Friv.) Boiss. et Orph.
5*. The blossoms purple, pink or red ........................................................................................................................ ..................... 6.
6.   Blossoms dark red or dark purple; peripheral blossoms of a head slightly larger than the other. Stem except bristles gray and........... fibrous. Underside of leaves gray and hairy…………………...................................................………... (6) K.macedonica Grisb. 
6*. Blossoms light pink or light purple. The stem and lower surfaces of the leaves are rarely gray and fibrous. Peripheral blossoms in..... ....................................................................................................... heads clearly larger than the other. (4) K. arvensis (L.) Coult.
7.  Upper leaves naked. Lower stem leaves widest at its middle. Stem out of the middle of the leaf rosette, which fades during flowering ............................................................................................................................... ........................... ... (8) K. midžorensis Form.
7*.All leaves hairy. Lower stem leaves widest at the bottom. Stems out the side of the leaf rosettes   ........................................….. 8.
8.   The lower part of the stem is smooth and fibrous. Top leaves are rarely fibrous, bottom are gray and furry. Stem leaves oval or...... oval-lanceolate, scalper-shaped ..................................................................................................................... (7) K. drymeja Heuff.
8*. Stem at the bottom is thick and downward hairs. Top leaves are rarely gray furry, bottom, rarely pubescent. Stem leaves lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, rarely blunt napileni. ……………………... …………………………………… (9) K. dinarica (Murb.) Borb.

2652. (1). K. orientalis L. (Biennial plants) – Grows in the bushes (1). VI - VII. Fig. 135 ..................................................................
In Bulgaria:
var. integra Vel. (K. balcanica Dav.) Leaves whole or serrated, baskets 1 - 2 cm wide, with bell-like shell. Along the Black sea coast in southeastern Bulgaria, Eastern Rhodopes.
var. grandis Vel. - Leaves feather-like chopped; large baskets 2.5 - 3 cm in diameter, with bell-like  shell. Burgas, Eastern Rhodopes.
var. parviflora Stoj. (f. Degenii auct. vix Borb.) - Leaves feather-like chopped; Small baskets, 1 - 1.5 cm in diameter, with a............. cylindrical shell. In the Strandja mountain; Forma intermedia Stoj. - With larger baskets. Between Haskovo and Harmanly.
2653. (2). K. byzantina Fritsch (Annual plants) - In the meadows and bushes. Strandja Elhovo.......................................................
2654. (3). K. integrifolia (L.) Bertol. {Scabiosa L L., K hybrida Coult.) (Annual plants) - In the dry grassy and rocky places and in the bushes. Mainly in the southern parts of the country, but also Black Sea coast and Danubian Plain (1). V - VIII.
var. integrifolia - Peripheral blossoms of the basket just a little longer than the inner; leaves intact, entire or serrated - f. integrifolia (K. hybrida var. adrianopolitana Podp., K.  betlidifofia Sźabo), or all leaves, or only some Leaves feather-like chopped - f. lyrata (Koch) Hayek (K. hybrida ά I. Koch, K. i. Bertol. var. l Szabo).
var. radiata Stoj. - Peripheral blossoms in the basket nearly twice longer than the inner. Rila mountain (in the river valley. Iliiina)........
2655. (4). K. arvensis (L.) Coult. {Scabiosa a, L.) (Perennial plants) - In the grassy areas and bushes (1 - 2). V - IX. (D, T, N). Fig. 1357. var. arvensis (Scabiosa polymorpha Schmidt) - The leaves usually feather-like, rarely intact. Stem with several pairs of leaves, blossoms blue and purple. Wide spread.  f. arvensis (K. a. f pratensis Szabo) – feather-like leaves; stemss of the baskets without glands or with rare glands; f. glandulosa Froel. Leaves feather-like; stems of the baskets with abundant glandular hairs – Pirin mountain; f. agrestis (Schmidt) Szabo (Scabiosa polymorpha 2. agrestis Schmidt) - Leaves feather-like, entire or serrated .
var. travnicensis (Beck) (K. rigidiuscula var. t Beck) - The stem at the bottom with thick protruding setae, leafless or with a pair of small pinnate leaflets. Basal whole or lira-like. The blossoms red-purple or purple. In foothills and mountains of southwestern Bulgaria (Samokov town, Rila, Lulin mountains).
var. albanica (Briq.) (Scabiosa a. Briq.) - Leafless stem or with a pair of small leaves, densely covered with soft, long hairs. Leaves usually intact, covered with dense hairs and lies close. Red-purple blossoms color. Slavianka mountain.
2656. (5). K. ambigua (Friv.) Boiss. et Orph. {Scabiosa a, Friv.) (Perennial plant) - In the bushes in southern Bulgaria Rhodopes, rarely in the northern foot of the Central Balkan mountain,also in southwestern Bulgaria (1 - 2). VI - IX.
var. ambigua (K. collina var. gigantea Vel.) - leaves entirely covered with pappus. Wrapping leaves of fiber. Widespread.
var. rumelica (Vel.) Borb. (K. collina var. r. Vel.) - Lamina of the leaves on the rim are ciliates, and its surface is bare. Wrapping leaves only its edge are fibrous. “Средна гора” mountain, Sadovo, Sliven.
2657. (6) K. macedonica Grsb. (Perennial plants) - In the dry grassy places and in the bushes; throughout Bulgaria (1- ). VI - IX.
var. macedonica [K. m. var. indivisa (Vis. et Panč.) Szabo, Scabiosa m. var. i Vis. et Panč.] - Leaves intact (entire or serrated). Dark purple blossoms. Widespread.
var. lyrata (Vis. et Panč.) (Scabiosa macedonica var. l. Vis. et Panč., S. lyrophylla Panč.) - Leaves Feather-like or chopped lira-like chopped. Dark red blossoms (f. lyrata) or purple - f. lilascens (Panč.) Szabo (K. I. Panč.). Widespread.
2658. (7). K. drymeja Heuff. (K. nymphartium Boiss. Et Heldr.) (Perennial) - From the shady forests and stony places; quite often in the mountain belt of Central and Western Balkan Mountain, Vitosha mountain, lower mountains in southwestern Bulgaria, Rila, Rhodopes and Western Slavianka mountains. (2). V - IX. Fig. 1358.
2659. (8). K. midžorensis Form. (K. longifolia auct. non W. K .; K magnifica auct. non Boiss.) (Perennial plants) - In grassy places, in the mountains. It is found in Central and West Balkan Mountain, Rila, Pirin, Middle and Western Rhodopes, Vitosha, Rui, and Ossogovo mountains Paramunska Mountain. (2 - 3). VII - IX.
f. midžorensis (K. Wagneri Briq.) - The blossoms red; f. flavescens (Rapč.) Hayek (K. magnifica var. f. Panč.) – Blossoms yellow. Western Balkan mountain.
Hybrid K. drymeja Heuff. X K. midžorensis Form. (K X perfoliata Vel.) - Vitosha, Rila.
2660. (9). K. dinarica (Murb.) Borb. (K silvatica var., Murb.) (Perennial) - In the rocky and grassy places in Rila mountain (3). VII - VIII.
In Bulgaria only f. malyana Szabo.

Note .: K. longifolia W. K. - Indicate mistaken for Bulgaria.


References: „Флора на България”, Н. Стоянов, Б. Стефанов, Б. Китанов, част II, Наука и Изкуство, София, (1967)


Distribution in Bulgaria: (Conspectus of the Bulgarian Vascular Flora) = conspectus&gs_l= Zlc.
Distribution:

Species:

Knautia arvensis (L.) Coult. - Field Scabious

Knautia drymeja Heuffel - Hungarian Widow Flower

Knautia midzorensis Form. -

 

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