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Genus Rosa L.

Род 397 (4). ШИПКА — ROSA L.¹

L., Sp. PL ed. 1 (1753) 491; Gen. Pl. ed. 5 (1754) 217.

Fam:   Rosaceae Juss.
Genus:   Rosa L.
English Name: Rosa

Description:

With falling leaves or evergreen shrubs, rarely lianas. Branches erect or more or less curved, covered with different in size and shape spikes: straight, needle-shaped, curved; rarely the spikes are missing. Leaves are not pair feather-like; The stipules clustered with the leaf stems, rarely free. Flowers are androgynous, single or collected in thyroid or broom-like. The flower bed, the base of the sepals and the stamen stems grew tangled and grown into a like a hippie. The sepals in their free part leafed, 5, rarely 4, whole or with several whole or wholly attached appendages, early fall or remain permanent on the growing hypnosis. Petals 5, rarely 4 or more, back ovate or back heart, pink, white, red or rarely yellow. Stamens many, with sitting down anthers or stems. Fruits are numerous, with bare or dense freely disposed or assembled in dense columns and stigmas attached to a hemispheric head. Fruit assembled, with nuts (covered with bristles), collected in the growing hippies, which on maturation turn into dishonest fruits, called hippies, spherical, bottled, elliptical, ellipsoid, egg-shaped or other form. They end at the top with a thick edge, and their walls become fleshy or dry.
Among the species there is easy hybridization, thanks to which some of them have a great polymorphism.

Economic importance. All species of the genus can be grown as ornamental plants in parks and gardens. Some of them are also used as pads of decorative roses.
The fruits of many species of Rosa are rich in vitamins and minerals and are used in the food industry and in official and folk medicine.

In Bulgaria, oil-bearing crop roses are grown with great success; rose oil is obtained from the colors of the horse.

From the Rosa genus in fossil state the following taxonomic units have been found: Rosa aff. gallica L. - leaf prints (Kurilo - Sofia, Pliocene); R. dumetorum Thuill. - leaf prints (Kurilo - Sofia, Pliocene); leaf prints (Podgumer - Sofia, Pliocene).

Table for determination of wild species

1    The stairs converged or grown together in a thin column, rising above the hail ……………................................................. 1. - R. arvensis Hudson
1* The stairs are free, almost hidden in the hail, the stigma attached to a different large hemispherical head .................................................................... 2
2   The leaflets of the calyx entire, rarely external with distinct, almost filamentous side appendages. Needle sticks, straight or slightly curved poles ......... 3
2* The leaflets of the calyx (mostly external) with well-developed linear or lance side-joints, rarely almost entire. The pins are strongly curved, rarely upstraight, thin ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 14
3   Flowers white. The young twigs are dense with straight needle spikes. Fruits dark-pink to reddish ............................................................................ 4
3* Flowers light pink to pinkish red. Young twigs naked or with rare spikes. Fruits red ……................................................................................……. 5
4 The leaflets are naked, simple jagged. Fruits broadly ellipsoid, dark pink to wine-red ............................................................. 2. - R. pimpinellifolia L.
4* The leaflets are below with the glands, rarely only on the main streak; Vague or double glandular jagged. Fruits ellipsoid or disk-flattened, dark-to-purple ......................................... .......................................................................................................................................... 3. - R. myriacantha DC.
5   Petals are bright red to pinkish. The leaflets after blossoming upright. Fruits mainly elongated ellipsoid or flattened spherical ...................................... 6
5* Petals mostly light-pink. The leaflets after blossoming spread out. Fruits broadly ellipsoid to oval ............................................. ................................ 8
6  Leaves naked or only on the main veins with rare hairs or separate glands. Fruits naked ..................................................... 25. - R. oxydodone Boiss.
6* The leaves are fibrous, glandular fibrous or glandular at least on the underside and on the major veins. fruit glandular, rarely naked ............................ 7
7   The leaves below the fibrous, simple or unclear double glandular jagged. Thin, needle-like poles are sometimes missing ............. 26. - R. pendulina L.
7* The leaves are densely covered with sticky glandular hairs, double glandular jagged. Spikes upright or slightly curved, located in a thick cluster of glandular hairs …………………………. .................................................................................................................… 28. - R. glutinosa Sibth. et Sm.
8   Leaflets naked or just on the main veins with rare hairs or glands .............................................................................................................................. 9
8* Leaflets fibrous, glandular fibrous or only glandular  ............................................................................................................................................... 10
9  Flowering twigs covered with dove or bluish bloom, often with red-violet tinge. Spikes are relatively small, with a well-defined bend ........................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 24. - R. glauca Pourret
9*  Flowering twigs with dark bark. The spikes are large, upright ............................................................................................. 13. - R. orphei Dimitrov
10   Fibrous leaflets without glandular hairs ............................................................................................................................. 14. - R. parilica Dimitrov
10* Fibrous leaflets fibrous and with glandular hairs .................................................................................................................................................... 11
11   The leaflets below with rare glandular lobes ......................................................................................................................................................... 12
11* The leaflets are always densely glandular at least on one side …………………................................................................................…………… 13
12   The leaflets 7 - 9, elliptic elongated, double glandular jagged ......................................................................................... 27. - R. balcanica Dimitrov
12* The leaflets 5 - 7, ovate elliptical, unclear double glandular jagged .............................................................................................. .15. - R. mollis Sm.
13   The leaflets are broadly elliptic, fibrous and densely glandular beneath ........................................................................................... 16. - R. villosa L.
13* The leaflets are almost round, slightly fibrous, glandular on both sides .........................................................................…17. - R. bulgarica Dimitrov
14   The leaflets of the calyx after blossoming turned back, slightly raised or spread to the erect, but then the spikes are varied, large curved and straight needle-shaped. The seascapes fall before the fruit is matured ...................................................................................................................................... 15
14* The leaflets of the calyx after the blossoming straighten up or spread, do not fall off the ripe fruit. Spikes of the same type, large, curved ................ 27
15   Small shrubs (0.3 - 1 m high). Flowers 5.5 - 9 cm in diameter, pink ..................................................................................................................... 16
15* Large shrubs, over 1 m tall. Flowers 2 - 6 cm in diameter, white, with pink or yellowish tinge .......................................……………………….... 18
16   The leaflets are naked, sometimes in the middle veins with rare glandular hairs .................................................................... 29. - R. jundzillii Besser
16* The leaflets are simply fibrous or glandular fibrous ................................................................................................................................................ 17
17   The leaflets of skin, top bare, underneath glandular fibrous ........................................................................................................... 30. - R. gallica L.
17* The leaflets soft, above covered with hairs, but sometimes only on the main veins, underneath thickly fibrous ......................... .. 31. - R. pumila Jacq.
18   The leaflets above light green, simply or improperly jagged ................................................................................................................................... 19
18* The leaflets above dark green, double glandular jagged ........................................................................................................................................ 21
19    The leaflets are naked, rarely below the main streak with rare hairs or glands ………...………...................................................... 4. - R. canina L.
19* The leaflets are simply fibrous or glandular fibrous ............................................................................................................................................... .20
20   The fibrous leaflets on both sides, but most often from the bottom ............................................................................... 5. — R. corymbifera Borkh.
21   The leaflets are nude, on the main body rarely fibrous or with single glands …………………. ............................................. 7. - R. dumalis Bechst.
21* Fibrous or glandular leaflets ................................................................................................................................................................................. 22
22 Fibrous leaflets below, rarely at least in the middle vein ........................................................................................................... 8. - R. nitidula Besser
22* The leaflets with glandular hairs ............................................................................................................................................................................ 23
23   Spikes of the same type, large, curved ............................................................................................................................................................. ... 24
23* Spikes of varied, large curved and small straight, densely located, accompanied by glandular hairs ........................................................................ 26
24   Flower stems naked, smooth. The leaflets oblong elliptical or back ovoid …………………..................................................... 9. - R. agrestis Savi
24* Flower stems more or less glandular. Leaflets broadly egg-shaped or elliptical ...................................................................................................... 25
25   The leaflets bare above, underneath thickly covered with aromatic glands and scattered hair …........................................ 10. - R. micrantha Borrer
25* The leaves more or less glandular fibrous .................................................................................................................... 23. - R. rhodopaea Dimitrov
26   The leaves above the nude, below the glands. The stigma naked ........................................................................................ 11 - R. pontica Dimitrov
26* The leaves above are rarely glandular, underneath thick glands with rare hairs. Fiber sticks … ................................................ 12. - R. turcica Rouy
27   The leaflets naked, below blue-green ........................................................................................................................ 18. - R. vosagiaca Desportes
27* Fibrous or glandular leaflets ............................................................ .................................................................................................................... 28
28   The leaflets nudes above bare, underneath covered with thick soft hairs ..................................................................................... 19. - R. caesia Sm.
28* The leaflets fibrous on both sides or glandular at least above ................................................................................................................................. 29
29   The leaflets fibrous, simple or double glandular jagged ........................................................................................................ 20. - R. tomentosa Sm.
29* Leaves slightly fibrous or bare abovep, underneath glandular, double jagged  ........................................................................................................ 30
30 Leaves broadly elliptic to back ovoid ..........................................................................................................................….. 21. - R. obtusifolia Desv.
30* Leaves elongated elliptical ................................................................................................................................................ 22. - R. elliptica Tausch

Table for determination of cultivated species

1   The columns brought together in a thick column protruding over the hippie disk ……….......................................................... - R. multiflora Thunb.
1* The columns brought together in a loose column, rising or hidden in the hippie  ........................................................................................................ 2
2   The column of the columns rises above the hail of the hippie ……………………….................................................................................……....... 3
2* The column of the columns hidden in the hippie, the stigma converged over the disk into a dense, different head large ............................................... 4
3   Leaves with 3 - 5 leaflets. The leaflets almost entire, after flourishing remain spread over the hatch ... .......................................... - R. chinensis Jacq.
3* Leaves with 5 - 7 leaflets. The leaflets of the calyx with well-pronounced lateral appendages, after blossoming, remain reversed over the hippie ............................................................................................................................................................................................. - R. moschata Herrmann
4    Flowers with 5 petals, yellow .............................................................................................................................................. - R. foetida Herrmann
4* Flowers with more than 5 petals (red), red, pink or white ....................................................................................................................................... 5
5   Shrubs with wrapped stems ..................................................................................................................................................... - R. banksiae R. Br.
5* Shrubs with erect stems ................................................................................................................................................................................. ....... 6
6    Leaflets with wrinkled surface. Simple hairs with flakes ............................................................................................................... - R. rugosa Thunb
6* Leaflets with non-wrinkled surface. Spikes always naked ....................................................................................................................................... 7
7   Leaflets top bare, bottom with rare glandular lobes ......................................................................................................................... - R. ceniifolia L.
7* Leaflets with simple hairs on both sides or only from the bottom ............................................................................................................................. 8
8   Leaflets with simple hairs on both sides. Pink flowers ………………………..……………… R. gallica var. Damascena f. Trigyntipetala Dieck.
8* Leaflets with simple hairs only underneath. White flowers ....................................................................................................................... - R. alba L.
¹ Developed by St. Dimitrov

From „Флора на НР България”, том V, БАН, София, (1973)

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A rose is a woody perennial flowering plant of the genus Rosa, in the family Rosaceae, or the flower it bears. There are over a hundred species and thousands of cultivars. They form a group of plants that can be erect shrubs, climbing or trailing with stems that are often armed with sharp prickles. Flowers vary in size and shape and are usually large and showy, in colours ranging from white through yellows and reds. Most species are native to Asia, with smaller numbers native to Europe, North America, and northwestern Africa. Species, cultivars and hybrids are all widely grown for their beauty and often are fragrant. Roses have acquired cultural significance in many societies. Rose plants range in size from compact, miniature roses, to climbers that can reach seven meters in height. Different species hybridize easily, and this has been used in the development of the wide range of garden roses.[1]
The name rose comes from French, itself from Latin rosa, which was perhaps borrowed from Oscan, from Greek ρόδον rhódon (Aeolic βρόδον wródon), itself borrowed from Old Persian wrd- (wurdi), related to Avestan varəδa, Sogdian ward, Parthian wâr.[2][3]
The genus Rosa is subdivided into four subgenera:

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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References: „Флора на НР България”, том V, БАН, София, (1973), Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Distribution in Bulgaria: (Conspectus of the Bulgarian Vascular Flora) = conspectus&gs_l= Zlc.
Distribution:

SPECIES:

Rosa canina L. - Dog rose

Rosa myriacantha DC. ex Lam. et DC. - х   х   х

Rosa oxyodon Boiss. - x   x   x

Rosa pendulina L. - х   х   х

Rosa pimpinellifolia L. - Burnet rose

Rosa vosagiaca Desportes - Whitish-stemmed Briar

 

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