Gymnadenia conopsea (L.) R. Br.

658 (3). G. conopea (L.) R. Br. in Ait. Hort. Kew. ed. 2, V (1813) 191; Orchis conopea L. Sp. PL ed. 1 (1753) 942; Satyrium conopseum Wahlb. Fl. Suec. (1824—26) 557; Hayek Prodr. Fl. Penins. Balc. Ill (1933) 407 —Koмарова гимнадения

Fam:   Orchidaceae Lindl.
Genus:   Gymnadenia R. BR.
Species: Gymnadenia conopsea (L.) R. Br.
English Name: Fragrant orchid


Gymnadenia conopsea (L.) R. Br.


Beschreibung: Pflanze 20 - 80 cm hoch. Stengel beblättert, gelblichgrün, hohl. Laubblätter 3 - 7, lineal bis lineal-lanzettlich, blaulichgrün, die unteren am Grunde dichter gedrängt, 10 - 25 cm lang, 0,5 - 3,5 cm breit, aufgerichtet bis schräg abstehend, rinnig gefaltet, nach oben kleiner werdend und in tragblattartige übergehend. Blütenstand schmal-zylindrisch, 5 - 25 cm lang, locker bis dicht, wenig- bis vielblütig. Blüten ziemlich klein, rotviolett bis rosa, selten weiß. Tragblätter eiformig- lanzettlich, lang zugespitzt, grün, bisweilen etwas violett überlaufen, etwa so lang wie der Fruchtknoten. Seitliche Sepalen länglich, abstehend, 4 - 7 mm lang, das mittlere mit den Petalen helmbildend. Lippe aus keilformigem Grunde verbreitert, dreilappig, breiter als lang. Seitenlappen eiförmig, zuweilen fein gekerbt. Mittellappen stumpf, ohne Zeichnung. Sporn fadenförmig, 1,2 - 2,0 cm lang, spitz, abwärts gerichtet, gebogen, meist fast doppelt so lang wie der Fruchtknoten. Intensiver Geruch nach Vanille.
Bliitezeit: Von Mai bis August, je nach Höhenlage.
Hohenverbreitung: Von der Küste bis etwa 2800 m.
Standort: In Magerrasen auf Kalk und Urgestein, in Sumpfwiesen, in Flach- und Quellmooren, im Gebüsch, in lichten Kiefernwäldern und auf Alpenmatten.
Bastarde: Mit G.odoratissima, Gattungsbastarde mit Anacamptis, Coeloglossum, D. cruenta, incarnata, maculata, majalis, praetermissa, purpurella, russowii, sambucina, traunsteineri, N. nigra und rubra, O. mascula, morio und palustris, P. bifolia, Pseudorchis albida und frivaldii.
Bildnachweis: 15. 7. 1981, Stammheim (Baden-Württemberg), H. Baumann.
“Die Wildwachsenden Orchideen Europas”  H. Bauman, S Künkele, Frankh, 1982 – Kosmos Naturführer

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Description: plant 20 - 80 cm high. Stem leafy, yellowish-green, hollow. Leaves 3 - 7, linear to linear-lanceolate, bluish green, the bottom pushed closer to the ground, 10 - 25 cm long, 0,5 - 3,5 cm wide,
geared up to spread sideways, folded with ditches, up rate decreases and pass in something like bract. Inflorescence narrow-cylindrical, 5 - 25 cm long, loose to dense, many-blossom infrequent up. Blossoms rather small, red-purple to pink, rarely white. Bracts egg similar- lanceolate, prolonged acute, green, sometimes overcrowded little violet, about as long as the ovary. Lateral sepals oblong, spreading, 4 - 7 mm long, the medium with the petals forming helm. Lip starts wedge base expands in tripartite body, wider than long,. Lateral lobes ovate, sometimes finely notched. Middle lobe obtuse, without drawing. Spur thready, 1.2 - 2.0 cm long, pointed, downward bent, usually almost twice as long as the ovary. Intense smell of vanilla.
Flowering time: From May to August, depending on the altitude.
Height Spread: From the coast to around 2800 m altitude.
Habitat: In lean grasslands on calcareous soils and bedrock, in marshy meadows, in flat and source moorlands, in the bushes, in sparse pine forests and alpine meadows.
Bastards: With G.odoratissima, genus bastards with Anacamptis, Coeloglossum, D. cruenta, incarnata, maculata, majalis, praetermissa, purpurella, russowii, sambucina, traunsteineri, N. nigra and rubra, O. mascula, morio and palustris, P. bifolia , Pseudorchis albida and frivaldii.
Origin pictures: 15. 7. 1981, Stammheim (Baden-Württemberg), H. Baumann.
 “Die Wildwachsenden Orchideen Europas”  H. Bauman, S Künkele, Frankh, 1982 – Kosmos Naturführer

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Perennials. Flat of the hand-like divided tubers. Stem up to 60 cm high with a 6 - 9 straight lanky Lancet or linear lanceolate leaves, usually folded on top in the hood. The above passing in bracts. Bracts herbaceous, lanceolate, with 3 veins as ovary. Blossoms quite small, pale purple or pink (rarely white), slightly aromatic. Perianth leaflets lanky, blunt. The two outer petals spread. The lip wider than long, with three broad parts. Spur very thin, almost fibrous, downward, 1/2 - 2 times longer than the ovary.
var. conopea; var. typits Soó Monogr. et Iconogr. Orch. II (1930) 275. With narrow leaves, loose inflorescence, the spur to two times longer than the ovary. Widespread.
var. densiflora (Wahlenb.) Soó Monogr. et Iconogr. Orch. II (1930) 274 Leaves up to 2 cm wide. Inflorescence dense. Spur slightly longer than the ovary. Slavyanka Mountain and others.
Hybrid Orchis zollikoferi Stoj. Bullet. Soc. Bot. Bulg. V (1928) 100; Orchigymnadenia zollikoferi Kell. et Soó Monogr. et Iconogr. Orch. II (1930) 285; Orchis sambudna X Gymnadenia conopsea. The blossoms of Orchis sambudna, leaves and spur of Gymnadenia. Found in meadows at Osikovo in Western Stara Planina (Balkan mountain).
„Флора на НР България”, БАН, София, том II, (1964)

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 Gymnadenia conopsea reaches on average 20–60 centimetres (7.9–23.6 in) of height, with a maximum of 80 centimetres (31 in). These plants are bulbous geophytes, as they bring their buds in underground tubers or bulbs, organs that annually produce new stems, leaves and flowers. Furthermore, these orchids are "terrestrial", because unlike "epiphyte" species do not live at the expense of other plants of major sizes.
The stem is leafy and robust, with a striated surface. The leaves are long, narrow and lanceolate and vary from 3 to 7. The leaf color is gray-green. Size of leaf: width 1 to 2 cm, length 10 – 25 cm.
These orchids have two ovoidal bulbs, deeply webbed and with many small and short lobes. Size of tubers: 1 to 3.5 cm.
The inflorescence is 5–25 centimetres (2.0–9.8 in) long and it is composed of flowers gathered in dense cylindrical spikes (up to 50 flowers per spike). These inflorescences are scented and genes underlying eugenol (a volatile scent compound) production have been identified in Gymnadenia conopsea, Gymnadenia odoratissima and Gymnadenia densiflora [1] The flowers are petiolated, placed in the axils of long bracts and reach on average 8–14 centimetres (3.1–5.5 in). They have a distinctive three lobed lip and long spurs. Their light scent is similar to cloves. Their colors vary from white and pink to pink-purple, more rarely white. These flowers bloom in the Summer, from June to July. They are hermaphrodite and pollinated by insects (entomophily), including moths. The species is almost exclusively pollinated by moths (Lepidoptera). The most common pollinators are the small elephant hawk-moth (Deilephila porcellus), hummingbird hawk-moth (Macroglossum stellatarum), silver Y (Autographa gamma), burnished brass (Diachrysia chrysitis) and large yellow underwing (Noctua pronuba). Fruit set is high with an average of 73%. The seeds germination is conditioned by the presence of specific fungi.


This plant is quite common throughout northern Europe with the exception of the Dinaric Alps. In Asia it is common in areas to the north of the Himalayas.


This species habitat includes mountain meadows and pastures, grassland and fens. They grow on siliceous and calcareous substrate, mildly damp and with low nutritional value, at an altitude of 0–2,400 metres (0–7,874 ft) above sea level.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Flowering Time: Blooms: IV - VII.

References:  “Die Wildwachsenden Orchideen Europas”  H. Bauman, S Künkele, Frankh, 1982 – Kosmos Naturführerр, „Флора на НР България”, БАН, София, том II, (1964), Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Distribution in Bulgaria: In peatlands, wet meadows, rare rain forests in the foothills and mountains to 2200 m altitude.(Conspectus of the Bulgarian Vascular Flora) = conspectus&gs_l= Zlc.

Distribution: Almost all of Europe, Southwest Asia, Siberia, Sakhalin, Manchuria, Japan, Korea.

Conservation status and threats: not protected species in Bulgaria by the Biodiversity Law. Законодателство на Република България: Закон за биологичното разнообразие

Medical plant: - yes, it is -

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