Hepatica nobilis Mill.
1065. H. nobilis Mill., Gard. Diet. ed. 8(1768) no 1; Tutin,Fl. Eur. 1(1964)219; Anemone hepatica L., Sp. PI. ed. 1 (1753) 538; Стоян. Стеф., Фл. Бълг. изд. 1, 1 (1924) 447; Hayek, Prodr. Fl. Penins. Balc. I (1924) 317; Hepatica triloba Gilib., Fl. Lithuan. 11 (1782) 273; Vel., Fl. Bulg. (1891) 3 — Гълъбови очички
Fam: Ranunculaceae Juss.
Genus: Hepatica Mill.
Species: Hepatica nobilis Mill.
English Name: Hepatica, Sharplobe hepatica, Roundlobe hepatica
Perennial plant. . The rhizome is short, thick, obliquely or horizontally, dark brown. The leaves are numerous, on top of the dark green, skin, short grooves, later naked, the below light green to the redeemed, long fibrous, subsequently naked; stems 5 - 15 cm long, densely long-fiber; laminas 20 - 50mm long and 10 - 40mm wide, triple, basically heart-shaped, shares ovoid, entire, rarely diluted single teeth; upper stem leaves 8 - 10mm long and 6 - 8mm wide, entire, with long- adherent fibres, celestial, ovate. The blossoms are single, 15 - 25 mm in diameter, blue-violet, purple, annoying or white. Flower stems 5 - 15 cm long, densely long-fiber. The leaves are rounded, 6 - 7 (10), narrowly elliptical, 10 - 12 mm long and 5 - 6 mm wide, on top rounded, entire, bare. The stamens are numerous; the stems of the stamens white or pink, significantly longer than the anthers, the last white. The carpelums are numerous, densely silvery fibrous. Nuts 3 - 3.5 mm long and 2 - 2.2 mm wide.
Business significance. In Western Europe grown as a decorative.
From „Флора на НР България”, том IV, БАН, София, (1970)
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Hepatica nobilis Schreb. is a synonym of this plant; not to be confused with Hepatica nobilis Mill.
Anemone hepatica (common hepatica, liverwort, kidneywort, pennywort) is a herbaceous perennial growing from a rhizome in the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae), native to woodland in temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere.
The taxonomy of the genus Anemone and its species is not fully resolved, but the latest phylogenetic studies of many species of Anemone and related genera indicate that Hepatica should be included under Anemone because of similarities both in molecular attributes and other shared morphologies.
Anemone hepatica grows 5–15 cm (2–6 in) high. Leaves and flowers emerge directly from the rhizome, not from a stem above ground.
The leaves have three lobes and are fleshy and hairless, 7–9 cm (2 3⁄4–3 1⁄2 in) wide and 5–6 cm (2–2 1⁄4 in) long. The upper side is dark green with whitish stripes and the lower side is violet or reddish brown. Leaves emerge during or after flowering and remain green through winter.
The flowers are blue, purple, pink, or white and appear in winter or spring. They have five to ten oval showy sepals and three green bracts.
Hepatica flowers only produce pollen. In North America, the flowers first attract Lasioglossum sweat bees and small carpenter bees looking in vain for nectar. Then when the stamens begin to release pollen, the bees return to collect and feed on pollen. Mining bees sometimes visit the flowers, but prefer flowers that produce both nectar and pollen.
Distribution and habitat
It is found in the woods, thickets and meadows, especially in the mountains of continental Europe.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Flowering Time: Blooms: III - IV.
References: „Флора на НР България”, том IV, БАН, София, (1970), Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Distribution in Bulgaria: Grow in the bushes and deciduous forests, mostly in the communities of Carpinas betulus L. and Fagus sylvatica L. Forebalkan, Stara Planina, Sofia region, Znepol region, Vitosha region, Western border mountains, Belasitsa, Pirin, Rila, Sredna gora, Rhodopes, mountains, up to 1650 m altitude. (Conspectus of the Bulgarian Vascular Flora) = conspectus&gs_l= Zlc.
Distribution: Europe (except the most northern, western and southern parts), Siberia, Japan-China region.
Conservation status and threats: not protected species in Bulgaria by the Biodiversity Law. - Biological Diversity Act - http://eea.government.bg/bg/legislation/biodiversity/zbran_22.08.15.pdf
Medical plant: yes, it is - Medicinal Plants Act - http://eea.government.bg/bg/legislation/biodiversity/ZLR_en.pdf
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