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Lamium maculatun L.

2683 (2). L. maculatun L., Sp. Pl., ed. 2 (1763) 809; Hayek, Prodr. FL Penins. Balc., II (1929 273; Ball, FL Eur., Ill (1972) 148 — Петниста мъртва коприва 

Fam:   Labiatae Juss. (Lamiaceae)
Genus:   Lamium L.
Species: Lamium maculatun L.
English Name: Spotted dead-nettle, Spotted henbit and Purple dragon

Description:

A perennial plant almost odorless with short underground and sometimes with over-ground rooting shoots from which stems of flowers grow. Stem 15 - 60 (-80) cm high, erect, not breanched or from the base branched, with rare or dense hairs, in the lower part often almost naked and red violet colored. The leaves with 1 to 4 cm long stems, triangular ovoid to heartbeat, (1-) 3 - 5 (-9) cm long and (1-) 2 - 4 cm long, on both sides with soft hairs, dark green, sometimes (especially in winter) in the middle with whitish stripes; the middle are usually larger than the lower and uppermost leaves. Blossoms 2 - 3.5 cm long, almost seated or with short stem, most often 3 - 5 in dihasis forming 6- to 14-blossom false vertebrae in the bosoms of the upper leaves. Bracts very small or missing. The calyx 8 - 15 mm long, bell-shaped to back conical, naked or with rare hairs, often brown violet; the serration are lance, stiletto-like pointed, slightly shorter or longer, sometimes up to almost twice as long as the tubing, after blossoming star-spreading. The crown is 20 - 35 mm long, most often bright red, less pink or white; the corolla tube is curved, 10 - 18 mm long, equal to or longer than the calyx, at the base narrowed and at the upper end of the constriction inside with a transverse ring of hairs, the kneeling curved upwards and gradually enlarged towards the opening; the upper lip 7 - 14 mm long, arched curved, strongly hollow concave, slightly sideways flattened, outwardly densely covered with whitish hairs; the lower lip 3-part with very small lateral partitions with 1 sloping tooth and a much wider, backward heart-shaped deep 2-part and serrated middle part, most commonly a bright pink with a dark red spot. The anthers are red brown to purple brown with long white hairs. The walnuts are pyramidally terse, about 3 mm long, smooth, olive green with a large whitish alder.

Volatility

1   Leaves even, shallow (up to 5 mm) jagged scraped  ........................................................................................................................................ 2
1* Leaves uneven, deep (up to 10 mm) sliced ​​scraped ..................................... ....... var. nemorale Reichenb., Fl. Germ. Excursion. (1831) 321; Стоян., Стеф., Фл. Бълг., изд. 1 (1925) 942; Hayek, Prodr. Fl. Penins. Balc., II (1929) 273 3
2   Blossoms pale red ...................................................................................................................... var. maculatum. He does not meet in Bulgaria.
2* Blossoms dark red. …………… var. cupreum (Schim. Nym., et Kotschy) Briq., Lab. Alp-Marit. (1893) 309; Стоян., Стеф., Фл. Бълг., изд. 1 (1925) 942; Hayek, 1. c. - Haskovo.
3   The teeth of the calyx in the base are triangular, to the point very pointedly ........................................................................................................ 4
3* The teeth of the calyx from the base are striking and ending with a bristle-shaped tip ................. f. echinatum Griseb, Spicil. Fl. Rum., II (1844) 134; Hayek, 1st c.; L. maculatum var. inflatum Heuff.; L. maculatum f. longiaristatum Neič., Ann. Univ. Sofia, II (1906) 142; Стоян., Стеф., Фл. Бълг., изд. 1, II (1925) 942 - Stara Planina (Gabrovo), Slavyanka, Rodopi (Assenovgrad).
4   Nude or scattred fiber plant ........................................................................................................................................ f. nemorale. Distributed.
4* Dense fiber plant ............................................................. f. alpinum Heuff . Verh. Zool. - Bot. Ges. Wien (1859) 179 Rila, Western Rhodopes.

From:  „Флора на Н Р България”, том IX, БАН, София, (1989)

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Lamium maculatum (also known as spotted dead-nettle,[1] spotted henbit[2] and purple dragon) is a species of flowering plant in the family Lamiaceae, native throughout Europe and temperate Asia (Lebanon, Syria, Turkey, western China).

Description

Lamium maculatum is a prostrate, spreading herbaceous perennial.[3] This species is very variable in terms of leaf size and shape, hairiness and flower colours. It reaches on average 20–80 centimetres (7.9–31.5 in) in height. It has erect, hollow and pubescent stems, branched at the base only. The soft hairy leaf blades are about 8 inches long. They are spotted (hence the Latin name maculatum), toothed with long petioles, about 2–4 centimetres (0.79–1.57 in) long. Their shape varies from ovate-triangular to heart-shaped. The inflorescence bears about two to eight hermaphrodite flowers about 20–30 millimetres (0.79–1.18 in) long. The flowers of the plant are formed in the leaf axils of the upper leaf pairs. The upper lips of the flowers are helmet-shaped, usually pink or purplish, while the bilobate lower ones are whitish with purple dots. The stamens are located in the upper lip and have orange pollen. The flowering period extends from April through November.
It tends to grow higher in spring while during the colder weather it is much flatter to the ground. If subjected to light frost, L. maculatum will recover in spring as it enters its growth cycle.

Habitat

It grows in a variety of habitats from open grassland to woodland, generally on moist, fertile soils at an altitude of 0–1,200 metres (0–3,937 ft) above sea level.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Flowering Time: Blooms: IV - V

References: „Флора на Н Р България”, том IX, БАН, София, (1989), Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Distribution in Bulgaria: Grow in bushes and forests. Distributed from the plains up to 1600 m altitude. (Conspectus of the Bulgarian Vascular Flora) = conspectus&gs_l= Zlc.

Distribution: Europe (except the northern parts). Southwestern Asia.

Conservation status and threats: not protected species in Bulgaria by the Biodiversity Law. - Biological Diversity Act -    http://eea.government.bg/bg/legislation/biodiversity/zbran_22.08.15.pdf

Medical plant: yes, it is - Medicinal Plants Act - http://eea.government.bg/bg/legislation/biodiversity/ZLR_en.pdf

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