Matricaria chamomilla L.
3155. M. chamomilla L., Sp. Pl. ed. 1 (1753) 891; Hayek, Prodr. Fl. Penins. Balc. 2 (1931) 565; Grierson, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 33 (1974) 252 et Fl. Turkey 5 (1975) 293; M recutita L., Sp. Pl. ed. 1 (1753) 891; DC., Prodr. 6 (1838) 50; Boiss. Fl. Or. 3 (1875) 323; M suaveolens L., Fl. Suec. ed. 2 (1755) 297, nom. illeg.; Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauchert, Folia Geobot. Phytotax. (Praha) 9 (1974) 254; Kay, Fl. Eur. 4 (1976) 167 - Лайка, лайкучка, лечебна лайка
(synonym: Matricaria recutita)
Fam: Asteraceae (Compositae)
Genus: Matricaria L.
Species: Matricaria chamomilla L.
English Name: Wild chamomile, Blue chamomile, Scented mayweed
An annual plant. The root is spindle-shaped, strongly branched. Stem erect or ascending, (2) 10 - 30 (60) cm high, from the base or at the top more or less branched, round, hollow, green to yellow-green or greenish-purple, glabrous to scattered short fibrous, longitudinally ribbed. Leaves in outline oblong, glabrous, irregularly double to triple feathery, (2) 4 - 6 (7) cm long, initially shares 10 - 12 pairs, the little shares linear, pointed, 0.3 - 0.5 mm wide. Baskets conical, with many, 10 - 25 mm in diameter, usually numerous, on (1,2) 3 - 6,5 (10) cm long bare petioles on the tops of the branches, sometimes forming an uneven, loose thyroid complex inflorescence. Tegumental leafles herbaceous, with a dark midrib, with a broad membranous edge, often especially brownish at the top, erect during flowering, spreading when the fruit ripens, subsequently curled down; the outer oblong narrowly elliptical, slightly shorter than the long 2.5 - 3.5 mm and 0.8 - 1.0 mm wide inner. Tongue flowers 12 - 15, white, rarely absent, tongues 6 - 9 mm long and 2 - 3 mm wide, curled down after flowering; inner flowers numerous, tubular, yellow, 1.2 - 1.5 mm long, corolla diffusely sessile glandular, 5-part deep. Fruit seeds, uniform or unequal, semi-cylindrical, pale brown, convex on the back, smooth, obliquely cut at the top, shortly narrowed at the base, 0.7 - 0.8 (1) mm long and 0.2 - 0.4 mm wide, slightly curved, on the abdominal side with (3) 4 - 5 thin light gray to white thin longitudinal ribs. The kite in the form of a membranous low crown or an ear reaching the length of the fruit seed, either barely noticeable or undeveloped.
Var. chamomilla. The fruits of the tongue flowers with a crown, the tubular ones without a crown. Widespread scattered throughout the country.
Var. recutita (L.) Grierson, Notes Roy. Bot. Guard. Edinburgh 33 (1974) 253; M. recutita L., Sp. Pl. ed. 1 (1753) 891. All fruit seeds without crown. Widespread.
Var. papulosa Margot & Reut., Mem. Soc. Phys. Geneva (1840) 96; M. chamomilla var. coronata J. Gay ex Boiss., Voy. Bot. Esp. 2 (1840) 316. The fruit seeds of the tonguel and tubular flowers (of the bottom or all) with a longer or shorter crown. Vitosha region (village of Kraynitsi, Dupnitsa region).
Economic significance. Medicinal plant with wide use.
From: „Флора на Република България”, том XI, БАН, Академично издателство „Проф. Марин Дринов”, София, (2013)
* * * * *
Matricaria chamomilla (synonym: Matricaria recutita), commonly known aschamomile (also spelled camomile), German chamomile, Hungarian chamomile (kamilla), wild chamomile, blue chamomile, scented mayweed,is an annual plant of the composite family Asteraceae. Commonly, the name M. recutita is applied to the most popular source of the herbal product chamomile, although other species are also used as chamomile. Chamomile is known mostly for its use against gastrointestinal problems; additionally it can be used to treat irritation of the skin.
Matricaria chamomilla is a member of theAsteraceae family, native to southern and eastern Europe. Today the plant can be found on all continents. It has a branched, erect and smoothstem, which grows to a height of 15–60 cm (6–23.5 in). The long and narrow leaves are bipinnate or tripinnate. The flowers are borne in paniculateflower heads (capitula). The white ray florets are furnished with a ligule, while the disc florets are yellow. The hollow receptacle is swollen and lacks scales. This property distinguishes German chamomile from corn chamomile (Anthemis arvensis), which has a receptacle with scales. The flowers bloom in early to midsummer, and have a strong, aromatic smell.
The flowers contain a blue essential oil, what gives it the characteristic smell and interesting properties. This colour characteristic of the oil, attributable to the chamazulene it contains, explains why the plant is also known by the common name Blue Chamomile. The fruit is a yellowish-brown achene.
The word chamomile comes from the Greek χαμαίμηλον (chamaimēlon) meaning "earth-apple", which is derived from χαμαί (chamai) meaning "on the ground" and μήλον (mēlon) meaning "apple". It is so called because of the apple-like scent of the plant.
In Latin, one of the meanings of matrix is womb; the name Matricaria was given to the genus because Matricaria chamomilla was widely used to treat such gynecologic complaints as menstrual cramps and sleep disorders related to premenstrual syndrome. The plant has been found to contain fairly strong antispasmodic and anti-inflammatory constituents and is particularly effective in treating stomach and intestinal cramps.
Use in human medicine
More than 120 chemical constituents have been identified in chamomile flower as secondary metabolites. The most of them are found in the blue essential oil of the flowers. Chemical constituents of its essential oil include: the terpenes bisabolol,farnesene, and chamazulene; the flavonoids apigenin, quercetin,patuletin, and luteolin; and coumarin.
German chamomile is used in herbal medicine for a sorestomach, skin care, irritable bowel syndrome, and as a gentle sleep aid. It is also used as a mild laxative and has an anti-inflammatory and bactericidal effect . Research with animals suggests antispasmodic, anxiolytic, anti-inflammatoryand some antimutagenic and cholesterol-lowering effects for chamomile. As well chamomile was found to be effective in treating stomach and intestinal cramps.
The chamomile oil can be processed into pills, but the flower head can also be used as a whole to make use of the beneficial effect. It can be taken as a herbal tea, two teaspoons of dried flower per cup of tea, which should be steeped for 10 to 15 minutes while covered to avoid evaporation of the volatile oils. The marcshould be pressed because of the formation of a new active principle inside the cells, which can then be released by rupturing the cell walls, though this substance only forms very close to boiling point. For a sore stomach, some recommend taking a cup every morning without food for two to three months.
Possible side effects
Chamomile, a relative of ragweed, can cause allergy symptoms and can cross-react with ragweed pollen in individuals with ragweed allergies. It also containscoumarin, so care should be taken to avoid potential drug interactions, e.g. withblood thinners. While extremely rare, very large doses of chamomile may cause nausea and vomiting. Even more rarely, rashes may occur. Type-IV allergic reactions (i.e. contact dermatitis) are common and one case of severe Type-I reaction (i.e. anaphylaxis) has been reported in a 38-year-old man who drank chamomile tea.
Matricaria chamomilla L.
Chamomilla chamomilla (L.) Rydb.
Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert
Matricaria recutita L.
Matricaria suaveolens L.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
* * * * *
Flowering Time: Flowering: V - VIII, fruitful: VII - X.
Distribution in Bulgaria: Growing in grassy, stony and weedy places, along roads, settlements, railways. lines, sometimes as a weed in fields and gardens, in the lowlands and mountains. Widespread, from sea level to 1200 m altitude. (Conspectus of the Bulgarian Vascular Flora) = conspectus&gs_l= Zlc.
Distribution: Southeast Europe, Caucasus, Siberia, Central and Southwest Asia. Wild and naturalized in most of Europe.
Conservation status and threats: not protected species in Bulgaria by the Biodiversity Law. - Biological Diversity Act - http://eea.government.bg/bg/legislation/biodiversity/zbran_22.08.15.pdf
Medical plant: no, it is not medical plant - Medicinal Plants Act - http://eea.government.bg/bg/legislation/biodiversity/ZLR_en.pdf
References: „Флора на Република България”, том XI, БАН, Академично издателство „Проф. Марин Дринов”, София, (2013), Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
1. 2. 3.
Back to BEGINNING
© Copy right: K. Nanev© 2012. All rights reserved