Medicago lupulina L.
1764 (1). M lupulina L., Sp. PI. ed. 1 (1753) 779; Urb., Verb. Bot. Ver. Brand. 15 (1873) 52; Hayek, Prodr. Fl. Penins. Balc. I (1926) 835; Oost. et Reichg., Acta Bot. Neerl. 7 (1958) 90; Кож., Изв. Бот. инст. БАН, XV (1965) 136; Tutin, Fl. Eur. II (1968) 154 — Хмелна люцерна
Fam: Leguminose Juss. (Fabaceae)
Genus: Medicago L.
Species: Medicago lupulina L.
English Name: Black medick, Nonesuch, or Hop clover
Biennials to annuals, perennials. Stems lying or rose slightly to, 6.0 - 40.0 cm long, up to 1.5 mm in diameter, numerous, thin, irregularly angular, at the upper side with more or less pronounced channel, naked or shorter or semi outspread long fitting to simply fibrous, less frequently in the upper half more or less fibrous glandular or mixed-fitting outstretched, simple and glandular hairs. Stipule 5.0 - 10.0 (12.0) mm long, longer or shorter than petiole, lanceolate, longer or shorter pointed, above basically with 1-3 teeth, lower cut or 1-4 large, triangular teeth. Leaflets 5.0 -15.0 (20.0) mm long and 4.0 - 12.0 (16.0) mm wide, wide back ovate, rounded or almost rhombic, often at the top cut and like awn or short triangular tooth, in the upper third large serrated, basically more often wedge or semi-fitting scattered short or long fiber. Inflorescences stems positioned at an acute angle with stem longer than in inflorescence leaf, scattered or dense fibrous. Clusters (3.0) 4.0 - 5.0 (6.0) mm in diameter, spherical or after overblown more or less cylindrical elongated ovoid to reverse, clearly longer than in inflorescence leaf. Bracts tunicates, slightly shorter or equal to the flower stwm. The stems of the flowers upright or slightly diverted, or simply fibrous glandular shorter than calyx. Flowers 10 - 30 (1.5) 2.0 - 3.0 mm long. Calyx 1.0 - 3.0 mm in length, pipe-like bell-shaped, with 5 slightly protruding veins, of 1/2 of corolla or equal to him, naked or short-fitting fiber; styliform teeth longer than tube. Corolla lemon yellow. Flag 1.5 - 2.0 mm in diameter, rounded, often slightly wider than long, without or with short claw, the tip slightly incised, longer than keel and wings. Wings with elliptical equal to the nail or longer than it leaf blades, the tongue slightly shorter than the nail. The keel sunk on top, the leaf blade irregular elliptical, equal to nail. Beans (5.0) 6.0 - 14.0 (16.0) mm long and 3.0 - 4.0 (5.0) mm wide, monocotyledon, reniform, laterally bulging, bare or covered with simple like silk or glandular hairs often mixed fiber, turns black at maturity; veins concentric anastomosed more or less with each other and always in the direction of the bean torsion, antlers always positioned at an acute angle. The seeds 1.5 - 2.5 mm in length, extended ovoid, whitish.
1 The plant bare-fitting or short fiber simply ... var. lupulina. Widespread.
1* At least beans is glandular fibrous or glandular hairs are interspersed with simple ………................................................................. 2
2 Only beans fibrous glandular var. willdenoviana Koch, Syn. ed. 3, I (1857) 139; Кожухаров, 1. c. Scattered throughout the country.
2* Шге plant at least in the upper part glandular fiber. Stem mostly covered with simple hairs. . .var. glanduligera Neum., in Neum. et Ahlfv., Sveriges Fl. (1901) 331; Кожухаров, 1. c. Black Sea Coast (Southern) Znepolski area Struma Valley, Central and Eastern Rhodopes (northern slopes), Thracian Lowland, Tundzha hilly plain.
Economic importance. It is characterized by a high content of nutrients and can develop large feed table. Because of their stems lying is comfortable only as pasture plant. Of particular interest is the multiannual form of a number of authors (Лавренко, 1951) it is recommended for sowing in the meadows. There are many forms of acknowledgments or nearly erect stems that could be used as an object of selection improvement efforts.
From „Флора на НР България”, том VI, БАН, София, (1976)
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Medicago lupulina, commonly known as black medick, nonesuch, or hop clover, is a familiar lawn plant belonging to the legume or clover family. Plants of the genus Medicago, or bur clovers, are closely related to the true clovers (Trifolium) and sweet clover (Melilotus). Like the true clovers, black medick has three leaflets and a small, yellow flower closely resembling those of the lesser trefoil. Black medick belongs to the same genus as alfalfa.
Medicago lupulina is an annual or short-lived perennial plant,:168 growing each year from adventitious buds on the roots. Mature plants measure from fifteen to eighty centimeters (32 inches) in height, with fine stems often lying flat at the beginning of growth and later erecting. The leaves are compound, each with three oval leaflets, carried on a short petiole; the center leaflet usually has a longer petiole. The leaflets are hairy, toothed toward the tip, and differ from those of the similar Trifolium dubium in that they end in a short point.:148:175
Black medick has small yellow flowers, often grouped in tight bunches, and typically measuring between two and four millimeters in diameter; but on larger plants the flowers may reach eight millimeters or more (1/3 inch).
The fruit is a small, ovoid pod, between one and two millimeters in length, that does not open upon maturation, but hardens and turns black when ripe. Each pod contains a single amber-colored seed.
Like other legumes, the roots of black medick contain nodules hosting nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Plants that survive for more than one year may develop a deep tap root.
A native of the old world, black medick is found throughout Europe, north Africa, the near east, and most of Asia, including India, China, and Korea. It is naturalized in central Asia, Japan, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, the United States, Canada, and much of South America. Black medick is found throughout the United States, including Hawaii and Alaska.
Black medick thrives in dry to moist, well-drained soils containing sand, loam, or clay, and is a pioneer plant, often growing on disturbed ground. It grows in alkaline, neutral, and mildly acidic conditions. It does not grow in shady areas. Black medick grows well in limestone soils and on coastal sand dunes, where it suffers less competition from the other plants, and as such is found on many islands, such as Taiwan, the Canary Islands, the Azores, and Madeira. It is resistant to cold, and can be found on mountains up to 1,800 meters.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Flowering Time: Blooms: V - VIII, fruitful: VI - IX.
References: „Флора на НР България”, том VI, БАН, София, (1976), Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Distribution in Bulgaria: Grow through meadows, pastures, clearings and bushes in eroded areas near fields and coastal sands, ruderal under conditions of moderate to low humidity. Spread up to 1600 m altitude. (Conspectus of the Bulgarian Vascular Flora) = conspectus&gs_l= Zlc.
Distribution: Europe (north to Norway and Eastern Finland), Mediterranean, Caucasus, Central and Southwest Asia, Siberia, Central and North Africa.
Conservation status and threats: not protected species in Bulgaria by the Biodiversity Law. - Biological Diversity Act - http://eea.government.bg/bg/legislation/biodiversity/zbran_22.08.15.pdf
Medical plant: It is not - Medicinal Plants Act - http://eea.government.bg/bg/legislation/biodiversity/ZLR_en.pdf
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