Mentha aquatica L.
2593 (3). M. aquatica L., Sp. Pl., ed. 1 (1753) 576; Boiss., Fl. Or., IV (1979) 544; Hayek, Prodr. Fl. Penins. Balc., II (1930) 389; Harley, Fl. Eur., III (1972) 185; M. hirsuta Huds., Fl. Angl. (1762) 223; M. purpurea Host, Fl. Austr., II (1831) 141; M. aquatica pedunculata Pers., Syn. Pl., II (1807) 119; M. pyroifolia H. Br., Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges., XL (1890) 420; M. aquatica var. hirsuta (Huds.) H. Br., op. c; M. perhirsuta (Borb.) Trtm. in Javorka, Mag. Fl. (1925) 946; M. aquatica var. calamintaeafolia Vis., Fl. Dalm., II (1847) 10; M. aquatica var. cordata Prod., Bull. Inf. Gluj (1925) 114; M. aquatica var. ortmannianus (Opiz) H. Br., op. c., 421 et in H. Br. et Top., Bot., Mon. (1895) 96; M. ortmanniana Opiz, Nat. Tsch., I (1826) 437; M. aquatica f. caput-medusae (Trtm. et Urum.) Stoj., Stef„ Kitan; Фл. Бълг., изд. 4 (1967) 937; M. aquatica subsp. caput-medusae Trtm., et Urum., Сб. БАН, XXX (1935) 5 — Водна мента
Fam: Labiatae Juss. (Lamiaceae)
Genus: Mentha L.
Species: Mentha aquatica L.
English Name: Water mint
Perennial plant. Almost naked up to a thick fiber plant, often with a purple hue and unpleasant odor. Rhizomes usually above ground, green or with a purple hue, not fragile, with small, usually kidney leaves; stems (10-) 20 - 90 cm tall, upward to erect, usually strongly branched in the lower part. The leaves (15-) 30 - 90 mm long and (10-) 15 - 40 mm wide, ovoid to ovate lance with pointed up to blunt tip and usually cut, but sometimes wedge-shaped base, on stems, edge unevenly finely toothed. Blossoms in 2 - 3 concise vertebra. The bracts are not protruding, forming a head of complex inflorescence up to 20 mm in diameter, sometimes with 1 to 3 lower vertebrae, often on short stems in the bosom of leaf-like bracts. The calyx (2,5) 3,0 - 4,0 mm long, trumpet with clear veins; the teeth are stryliform or narrowly triangular. Flower stems fibrous. Corolla purple, 3.0 - 4.5 mm long. Walnuts pale brown, smooth or sometimes slightly in small wells.
Business significance. Essential oil, used in folk medicine as gallbladder and stomach ache.
Note. 1. A highly variable plant in terms of the general appearance, shape, dimensions and indumentum of the leaves. A number of intra-species taxa have been described, some of which retain scars in culture. However, volatility is of a continuous nature, and the unbundling of taxa is not justified.
2. This species refers to the Bulgaria indicated::
М. capitata х purpurea — Казичене;
М. pedunculata х purpurea— Сандански, София, Княжево, Крапец, Обеля, Радомир;
М. Perhirsutaxpedunculata— Казичене;
М. Perhirsutaxpurpurea — Казичене;
M. pedunculata х capitata — Казичене;
М. purpurea x ortmanniana — Бояна;
М. purpurea х pedunculata — Караш, Плевенско; Казичене;
М. Purpurea x perhirsuta — Казичене, Княжево;
М. purpurea х pyripalia — Берковица.
From „Флора на Н. Р. България”, том IX, БАН, София, (1989)
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Mentha aquatica (water mint; syn. Mentha hirsuta Huds.) is a perennial flowering plant in the mint family Lamiaceae. It grows in moist places and is native to much of Europe, northwest Africa and southwest Asia.
Water mint is a herbaceous rhizomatous perennial plant growing to 90 centimetres (35 in) tall. The stems are square in cross section, green or purple, and variably hairy to almost hairless. The rhizomes are wide-spreading, fleshy, and bear fibrous roots. The leaves are ovate to ovate-lanceolate, 2 to 6 centimetres (0.79 to 2.36 in) long and 1 to 4 centimetres (0.39 to 1.57 in) broad, green (sometimes purplish), opposite, toothed, and vary from hairy to nearly hairless. The flowers of the watermint are tiny, densely crowded, purple, tubular, pinkish to lilac in colour and form a terminal hemispherical inflorescence; flowering is from mid to late summer. Water mint is visited by many types of insects, and can be characterized by a generalized pollination syndrome, but can also spread by underground rhizomes. All parts of the plant have a distinctly minty smell. A variety known as Mentha aquatica var. litoralis is native to areas of Sweden and Finland near the Baltic Sea. It is unbranched, hairless, with narrower leaves and paler flowers.
Distribution and habitat
Water mint is native to much of Europe, northern Africa and western Asia. It has been introduced to North and South America, Australia and some Atlantic islands.
As the name suggests, water mint occurs in the shallow margins and channels of streams, rivers, pools, dikes, ditches, canals, wet meadows, marshes and fens. If the plant grows in the water itself, it rises above the surface of the water. It generally occurs on mildly acidic to calcareous (it is common on soft limestone) mineral or peaty soils. M. aquatica can occur in certain fen-meadow habitats such as the Juncus subnodulosus-Cirsium palustre plant association. It is a component of Purple moor grass and rush pastures - a type of Biodiversity ActPlan habitat in the UK.
It hybridises with Mentha spicata (spearmint) to produce Mentha × piperita (peppermint), a sterile hybrid; with Mentha suaveolens (apple mint) to produce Mentha × suavis; with Mentha arvensis (corn mint) to produce Mentha × verticillata; and with both M. arvensis and M. spicata to give the tri-species hybrid Mentha × smithiana. It can be used to make a herbal tea.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Flowering Time:Blooms: VI - X.
Distribution in Bulgaria: Growing in damp and marshy grassy places, along streams and rivers, swamps and sprawls in the lowlands and foothills. Distributed, from sea level up to 1000 m altitude. (Conspectus of the Bulgarian Vascular Flora) = conspectus&gs_l= Zlc.
Distribution: Europe (except the Northern Territory), Caucasus, Southwest Asia, North America.
Conservation status and threats: not protected species in Bulgaria by the Biodiversity Law. - Biological Diversity Act - http://eea.government.bg/bg/legislation/biodiversity/zbran_22.08.15.pdf
Medical plant: yes, it is -Medicinal Plants Act - http://eea.government.bg/bg/legislation/biodiversity/ZLR_en.pdf
References: „Флора на Н. Р. България”, том IX, БАН, София, (1989), Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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