Ononis arvensis L.
1756 (6). O. arvensis L., Syst. Nat. ed. 10 (1759) 478; Ivimey-Cook, Fl. Eur. II (1968) 147; O. hircina Jacq., Hort. Vindob. I (1770) 40; Стоян. Стеф., Фл. Бълг. изд. I, II (1925) 626; Hayek, Prodr. Fl. Penins. Balc. I (1926) 830; Širjaev, Beich. Bot. Centralbl. XLIX (1932) 562; O. spinosa β L., Sp. PI. ed. 1 (1753) 716; O. spinosa subsp. hircina (Jacq.) Gams in Hegi, 111. Fl. Mitteleur. IV, 3 (1925) 224; O. pseudohircina auct. bulg.; Exs.: PI. Bulg. Exsicc. No 563 — Обикновен гръмотрън
Fam: Leguminose (Fabaceae) Juss.
Genus: Ononis L.
Species: Ononis arvensis L.
English Name: Field restharrow
Perennials. Rhizome with numerous basically woodened stems ascending or erect, branched from 30.0 - 70.0 (100.0) cm tall, round, dense, scattered or in line with dense, simple, long and short glandular cloth or almost naked, not root, without sterile shoots; side branches often turned into spines. Leaves triple and simple; axle 3.0 - 10.0 (15.0) mm long, fibrous glandular to almost naked. Leaflets 10.0 - 25.0 mm long and (3.0) 5.0 - 10.0 (15.0) mm wide, elliptic to ovate, basically cuneiform narrowed, the top blunted or rounded, edge sharp serrated, green, with bulging veins on both sides of fibrous glandular to vazgoli. Prilistnitsi leaf-shaped, ovoid, 3.0 to 6.0 (10.0) mm long, serrated glandular fiber to almost naked. Two blossoms (rarely single) in the bosom of the leaves along the stem and branches to form more or less compact cluster inflorescences. Blossom stems 2.0 - 3.0 (4.0) mm long, densely glandular pubescent. Bracts absent. Axillary leaves simple, less often triple. Bell-shaped calyx, 8.0 - 10.0 mm long and 4.0 - 5.0 mm wide, glandular and fibrous simply to almost naked; teeth elliptical linear, 3 - 4 times longer than the tube. Corolla (8.0) 12.0 - 20.0 mm long, longer than the calyx. Flag broadly elliptical, reverse ovate to almost round, the top entire or slightly incised, 9.0 - 15.0 mm wide, at the base with short wide nail, slightly longer than the wings and keel, pink (rarely white), back more or less glandular fiber. Elliptical wings, basically short appendage, narrowed in thin long nails equal to the boat, pink, rarely white, naked. The keel elliptical rhombic, prolonged pointed, curved sickle, at the base with thin nails, pink, rarely white, naked. Beans 6.0 - 9.0 mm long and 3.0 - 5.0 mm wide, egg-shaped, upright, with elliptical cross section, short pointed, is not pinched, densely fibrous glandular, 1 - 2 (3) - seeds, shorter or equal to the calyx. Seeds to 2.5 mm in diameter, lenticular reniform, on the surface of finely grained.
var. arvensis; O. hircina var. inermis Ledeb., Fl. Ross. I (1842) 513; Širjaev, op. c. 563. The stem or spineless single small ones. Northeast Bulgaria (Montana), Fore (Vratsa, Sevlievo and Lovech), Western Stara Planina (Petrokhan), Western Rhodopes (Peshtera, Beglika).
var. spinescens (Ledeb.) Garcke, Fl. Deutschl. Aufl. 16 (1890) 99; O. hircina var. spinescens Ledeb., 1. c .; Širjaev, op. c. 566; O. hircina var. spinoso-hircina auct. bulg. non Širjaev; O. hircina var. intermedia auct. bulg. non-Širjaev; O. hircina var. semispinosa Širjaev, in herb. The stem with more or less well developed spines. Widespread.
Total distribution. Europe, the Caucasus, Central and Southwest Asia, India.
Note. O. arvensis formed with O. spinosa and O. repens kinship group, of that in southern Europe face multiple transitions. (see. Also Huber-Morat in Fl. Turkey 3: 381 - 382, 1970). A major distinguishing feature is the number of blossoms and the structure of the inflorescence (at O. arvensis blossms are usually two in more or less compact inflorescences, while in O. spinosa and O. repens are single in loose clusters) and the ratio between the calyx and beans. Due to the significant variability occurring forms dense clusters and single blossoms. Varies also the presence of prickles, their size and density, and the degree and nature of indumentum. In typical O. arvensis lacking spines and indumentum not pronounced as in many variations observed varying degrees of cover with cloth and markedness of thorns. In this type are also found form with white flowers.
From „Флора на НР България”, том VI, БАН, София, (1976)
Flowering Time: Flowering: VI - IX, fruitful: VIII - X.
References: „Флора на НР България”, том VI, БАН, София, (1976)
Distribution in Bulgaria: Grows in the wet meadows, in the sands along rivers, through bushes and near forests, rare as Weeds in crops in the plains and mountains. Widespread from sea level up to about 1600 m altitude (Conspectus of the Bulgarian Vascular Flora) = conspectus&gs_l= Zlc.
Distribution: Europe, the Caucasus, Central and Southwest Asia, India.
Conservation status and threats: not protected species in Bulgaria by the Biodiversity Law. - Biological Diversity Act - http://eea.government.bg/bg/legislation/biodiversity/zbran_22.08.15.pdf
Medical plant: it is not - Medicinal Plants Act - http://eea.government.bg/bg/legislation/biodiversity/ZLR_en.pdf
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