Origanum vulgare L.
2600. O. vulgare L., Sp. Pl., ed. 1 (1753) 590; Hayek, Prodr. Fl. Penins. Balc., II (1929) 334; Fernandes et Heywood, Fl. Eur., III (1972) 171 — Риган
Fam: Labiatae Juss. (Lamiaceae)
Genus: Origanum L.
Species: Origanum vulgare L.
English Name: Sweet marjoram
Perennial plant. The rhizome is short, horizontally, slightly branched, with overhead shoots. Stems 25 - 90 (-100) cm tall, several erect, with aging stiff, are not branched or branched, pale whitish brown or in the lower half pale purple, scattered to densely soft short fibers, less rarely naked. Leaves on 3 - 7 mm long stems, 10 - 40 mm long, (4-) 5 - 25 mm wide, ovate, oblong ovoid, entire or shallowly dentate, on top tipped or obtuse in the base round or gradually narrowed, above naked or scattered to densely short, fibrous, below pale green, fibrous, between the veins with punctuated transparent glands. The blossoms same-sex ones female and bipolar, sitting down or on short stems in the bosomes of 2 - 6 mm long, broadly overlapping convicts, collected in 5 to 25 (-30) mm long little wheatears forming a thyroid or pyramidally complicated subtle inflorescence. Convicts ovoid or lance, dull or pointed, purple or green, bare or fibrous, on the edges grooves, from inside with 2 - 3 or more punctuated glands. The calyx 2 - 4 mm long, regular, naked or fibrous cup, between the veins of several or multiple pinpoint glands, at the opening with a ring of hairs, with 0.5 - 1.0 mm long, linear, gradually tapered teeth. Corolla 4 - 7 mm long, pale purple, pale pink or white, naked or fibrous; with scattered point glands or not; the upper lip is rounded, shallowly incised, the lower 3-part, the median share slightly longer than the lateral. The two front stamens protruding slightly above the upper lip. The style longer than the crown with strikingly long stigmas. Nuts ovoid, 0.5 - 0.7 mm long, brown, naked.
1 Bracts 2,0 - 3,5 (-4,0) mm long, green, on the inner surface together with the calyx with numerous punctate glands; the crown of white. . . . subsp. hirtum (Link) Ietswaart, Tax. Rev. Origanum (1980, 112, O. hirtum Link, Enum Hort, Berol, Alt (1822) 114, O. heracleoticum L., Sp.PI., Ed.1 (1753) 589 pp. excl. typ.; Стоян., Стеф., Фл. Бълг., изд. 1, II (1925) 963 et auct. fl. bulg.; Hayek, Fl. Penins. Balc., II (1929) 334. Струмска долина (Южна), Belasitsa, Eastern Rhodopes, Thracian Lowland (Besaparski ridges) from 250 to 700 m above sea level.
It is mentioned in Plovdiv (Park Recreation and Culture - Dimitrov et al., 1967).
1* Bracts 4 - 6 mm long, green or purple, naked or on the inner surface together with the calyx with several pinpoint glands; crown of pale purple, pale pink or white ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2
2 Bracts green, rarely pale red, crown white, very rare pale pink. . . subsp. viride (Boiss.) Hayek, 1, c .; O. vulgare var. viride Boiss., Fl. Or., IV (1879) 551; Стоян., Стеф., op. c., p. 962; O. heracleoticum L., 1. c., P. p. incl type. Middle Stara planina (c) village Ябълка (Ломът) Gabrovo region), Vitosha (Boyana), Western (Banya) and Medie (village of Bachkovo) Rhodope.
2* The purple bracts; crown of pale purple or pale pink ...... .. subsp. vulgare. Ex .: PI. Bulg. Exicc. No 77 ............................................................. 3
3 Beard 5 - 15 mm long, ovate or oblong …………. var vulgare; O. vulgare subsp. euvulgare Hayek, 1. c .; O. vulgare subvar. puberulum Beck, Fl. Nieder. Österr., II (1893) 933. Distributed.
3* Beard 15 - 25 mm long, cylindrical or prismatic ............. var. prismaticum Gaud., Fl. Helv., IV (1829) 78; O. vulgare subsp. euvulgare f. prismaticum (Gaud.) Hayek, I c. The Danube plain, the Rila (Rila Monastery), the Middle Rhodopes (Bachkovo village), the Thracian Lowland (Pazardzhik, Sadovo).
From: „Флора на Н Р България”, том IX, БАН, София, (1989)
Business significance. Essential oil containing timol and carvacrol, tannin and bitter substances, and fatty oils in the seeds. It is used in the official and folk medicine in the treatment of bronchitis, nervous excitability, etc., in the food industry as a spice and in the preparation of liqueur drinks. A very good honey plant.
* * *
Oregano (US: /ɔːˈrɛɡənoʊ, ə-/, UK: /ˌɒrɪˈɡɑːnoʊ/; Origanum vulgare) is a flowering plant in the mint family (Lamiaceae). It is native to temperate Western and Southwestern Eurasia and the Mediterranean region.
Oregano is a perennial herb, growing from 20–80 cm (7.9–31.5 in) tall, with opposite leaves 1–4 cm (0.39–1.57 in) long. The flowers are purple, 3–4 mm (0.12–0.16 in) long, produced in erect spikes. It is sometimes called wild marjoram, and its close relative, O. majorana, is known as sweet marjoram.
The word oregano is derived from Spanish orégano, from Latin orīganum, from Greek ὀρίγανον (orī́ganon). This is a compound of όρος (óros), "mountain", and γάνος (gános), "brightness", whence "brightness of the mountain".
Description and biology
Oregano is related to the herb marjoram, sometimes being referred to as wild marjoram. Oregano has purple flowers and spade-shaped, olive-green leaves. It is a perennial, although it is grown as an annual in colder climates, as it often does not survive the winter. Oregano is planted in early spring, the plants being spaced 30 cm (12 in) apart in fairly dry soil, with full sun. Oregano will grow in a pH range between 6.0 (mildly acidic) and 9.0 (strongly alkaline), with a preferred range between 6.0 and 8.0. It prefers a hot, relatively dry climate, but does well in other environments.
Many subspecies and strains of oregano have been developed by humans over centuries for their unique flavours or other characteristics. Tastes range from spicy or astringent to more complicated and sweet. Simple oregano sold in garden stores as Origanum vulgare may have a bland taste and larger, less-dense leaves, and is not considered the best for culinary use, with a taste less remarkable and pungent. It can pollinate other more sophisticated strains, but the offspring are rarely better in quality.
The related species, Origanum onites (Greece, Turkey) and O. syriacum (West Asia), have similar flavours. A closely related plant is marjoram from Turkey, which differs significantly in taste though, because phenolic compounds are missing from its essential oil. Some varieties show a flavour intermediate between oregano and marjoram.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
* * * Flowering Time: Blooms: V - VIII, fruitful: VII - IX.
Distribution in Bulgaria: Growing in shrubs on the outskirts of the woods, in the cuttings and on open stone quarries on silicate, lesser-scale terrain. Spreading mainly in the foothills and mountains of the country, from 100 to 1700 m altitude. (Conspectus of the Bulgarian Vascular Flora) = conspectus&gs_l= Zlc.
Distribution: Europe (excluding Iceland, Azores, Faroe Islands, Crete, Caucasus, Southwest and Central Asia, Western Siberia and the Far East).
Conservation status and threats: not protected species in Bulgaria by the Biodiversity Law. - Biological Diversity Act - http://eea.government.bg/bg/legislation/biodiversity/zbran_22.08.15.pdf
Medical plant: yes, it is - Medicinal Plants Act - http://eea.government.bg/bg/legislation/biodiversity/ZLR_en.pdf
References: „Флора на Н Р България”, том IX, БАН, София, (1989), Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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