Salvia pratensis L.
2708 (10). S. pratensis L., Sp. Pl., ed. 1 (1753) 25; Hayek, Prodr. Fl. Penins. Balc., II (1929) 310; Hedge, Fl. Eur., III (1972) 191; Exs.: Pl. Bulg. Exsicc. No. 965 — Ливадна какула
Fam: Labiatae Juss. (Lamiaceae)
Genus: Salvia L.
Species: Salvia pratensis L.
English Name: Meadow clary or Meadow sage
Perennial plant. Stem 30 - 100 cm high, simple, upright or upward, down with scattered simple hairs, in the upper parts with more or less dense glands and simple hairs. The leaves are usually in a basal rosette, maintained during flowering, 45 - 170 mm long and 20 - 70 mm wide, ovate or ovate oblong, basically slightly heart-shaped or rounded, more or less pointed or blunted on the top, round toothed or serrated, wrinkled, almost naked on both sides; petioles 30 - 80mm long with long or short glandular hair; rarely stem leaves are not wrinkled, smaller in size, with short petioles or sitting down enclosing the stem; underneath with dense, lying simple hairs. Bracts ovate to rounded, enclosing the stem, long pointed, green; the outside and the rim with scattered glandular hair, the inner nude; the lower ones reaching the top of the calyx, the upper ones smaller; during bloom curved back; durable. Vertebrate with 4 – 6 blossoms, 5 - 14, a number of; the axis with glandular and simple hairs. The the blossoms of some individuals unisexual, of other females; blossom petioles 3 - 7 mm long with thick short and long protruding veins, without bracts. The calyx 6 - 11 mm long (6 - 8 mm feminine), bell-shaped, with simple and long glandular on the outside, inside the upper half with short, lying simple hairs; the upper lip rounded with three convergent, short teeth, with the fruit deeply concave, double-edged; the lower one more or less deeply incised, longer than the upper one; all the teeth tapering. Corolla 20 - 30 mm long (female blossoms only 10-15 mm), dark blue to dark purple, less reddish or whitish; the upper lip sickle, barely incised, outwardly with scattered glandular hair, shorter, equal or longer than the lower one; the latter having elongated or elliptical lateral shares and a broad ovate, more or less incised, slightly wavy side-by-side; the tube more or less enlarged at the top, considerably longer than the calyx; inside naked. The stamens only longer than the upper lip or shorter and hidden in it; articulated at the point of attachment of the stamen petiole with the anther connection; petioles shorter than anther connection; shoulders unequal; the lower anther pouch reduced in a simple chisel plate, sterile. The style longer than the upper lip. Nuts 2.5 mm long and 2 mm wide, oblong, brown, smooth.
Note. S. pratensis is a polymorphic species, divided by a number of authors into multiple local subtypes, varieties and forms, in most cases without clear correlative markers.
S. pratensis x villicaulis; S. x danubialis Borb., Balaton. Fl. (1900) 266.
It is indicated for the Black Sea coast (North, Kavarna - Stoyan., Steph., 1948).
From: „Флора на НР България”, том IX, БАН, София (1989)
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Salvia pratensis (meadow clary or meadow sage) is a species of flowering plant in the family Lamiaceae, native to Europe, western Asia and northern Africa. The specific epithet pratensis refers to its tendency to grow in meadows. It also grows in scrub edges and woodland borders.
Salvia pratensis is an herbaceous perennial forming a basal clump 1 to 1.5 m (3.3 to 4.9 ft) tall, with rich green rugose leaves that are slightly ruffled and toothed on the edges. The stems have four edges and are clad in glandular and soft hairs. The leaves are arranged in opposite pairs, with those on the lower part of the stem up to 15 cm (6 in) long, decreasing in size higher up the stem. The flower stalks are typically branched, with four to six flowers in each verticil forming a lax spike. The 2.5 cm (1 in) flowers open from the base of the inflorescence, which grows up to 30.5 cm (12 in) long. The small calyx is dark brown. The corolla is irregular, 20 to 30 mm (0.8 to 1.2 in) long, fused with two lips and long-tubed. The upper lip arches in a crescent shape and the lower lip is three-lobed with the central lobe larger than the lateral lobes. In the wild the corolla is usually bluish-violet. In cultivation, the flowers have a wide variety of colors, from rich violet and violet-blue to bluish white, and from pink to pure white. There are two long stamens protected by the upper corolla lip and the fruit is a four-chambered schizocarp.
Distribution and habitat
Salvia pratensis is native to Europe, western Asia and northern Africa where it grows in meadows, fields, banks and rough places. It has become naturalized in many parts of the United States, and is considered a noxious weed in the state of Washington. At one time it was banned from California because it was thought to have naturalized in three locations.
Salvia pratensis is said to be hardy from USDA Zone 3. It is widely grown in horticulture, especially Salvia pratensis subsp. haematodes, which is prized by flower arrangers as a cut flower. Some botanists consider it a separate species, S. haematodes.
The name of the plant 'clary' is derived from 'clear-eye' and the plant seeds were formerly used as a paste to remove particles from the eyes and to reduce inflammation or redness. It was also used as a gargle for sore throats, and to clean teeth . It has also been used as a flavouring for beers and wines.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Flowering Time: Blooms: V - VIII.
Distribution in Bulgaria: Growing on dry meadows and forest meadows, mostly on sunny habitats in the plains, foothills and mountains. Widespread, from sea level up to 1200 m altitude. (Conspectus of the Bulgarian Vascular Flora) = conspectus&gs_l= Zlc.
Distribution: Almost all of Europe, Mediterranean (West Morocco). Introduced and cultivated in North America.
Conservation status and threats: not protected species in Bulgaria by the Biodiversity Law. - Biological Diversity Act - http://eea.government.bg/bg/legislation/biodiversity/zbran_22.08.15.pdf
Medical plant: yes, it is. - Medicinal Plants Act - http://eea.government.bg/bg/legislation/biodiversity/ZLR_en.pdf
References: „Флора на НР България”, том IX, БАН, София (1989), Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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