Salvia sclarea L.
2703 (5); S. sclarea L., Sp. Pl., ed. 1 (1753) 27; Hayek, Prodr. Fl. Penins. Balc., II (1929) 307; Hedge, Fl, Eur., III (1972) 190 — Мускатна какула
Fam: Labiatae Juss. (Lamiaceae)
Genus: Salvia L.
Species: Salvia sclarea L.
English Name: The clary or Clary sage
Perennial plant. Stem 20 - 120 cm high, erect, simple, sometimes very distorted with long simple and thick short glandular hairs (the latter mostly on the upper part). The leaves at the base early withering; stem leaves 60 - 200 (320) mm long, 30 - 150 (220) mm wide, broad ovate to ovate oblong, basal heartbeat, tip sharp or blunted, irregularly round to acute serrated, wrinkled, green; on both sides with gray, simple and glandular hair; petioles 20 - 90 mm long, glandular fibrous; the top leaves covering the stem. Bracts more or less covering blossoms, 15 - 35mm long and 10 - 25mm wide, ovate, sitting down with narrowly elongated pointed, prickly, top, pink to pale purple, or white with green rib with thick, short, simple gingival hairs; durable. Vertebrate with 2 – 6 blossoms, numerous, basically spaced, upwardly convergent; glandular fibrous axis. Flower petioles 2 - 4 mm long, straight up to slightly sparse, without bracts. The 10 - 12 mm long, tubular bell-shaped calyx with more or less dense, short, simple and glandular hair; with the fruit growing sometimes; the upper lip of the fruit is slightly curved upwards; with a tapering middle tooth and two lance, longer, bristle-to-bracelet-like toothbrushes; the lower one is shorter or the same length as the top, deeply incised with prickly teeth. Corolla 26 - 30 mm long, with purple top and creamy lower lip; upper lip sickle, incised; outside glandular fibrous, almost equally long with the lower; the latter with oblong, tapered to blunt, more or less protruding side-joints and with a broadly rounded ovate, deeply incised along the edge of a wave-like median share; the tube shorter than the calyx, swollen at the top, inside with a flared edge flap. Stamens longer than the upper lip, articulated at the point of attachment of the stamen petiole to the anther link; shouldersunequal, lower anther bag reduced in a simple chisel plate, sterile. The style longer than stamens. Nuts 2.5 mm long and 2 mm wide, elliptical, light brown with darker mesh, smooth.
From: „Флора на НР България”, том IX, БАН, София (1989)
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Salvia sclarea, the clary or clary sage, is a biennial or short-lived herbaceous perennial in the genus Salvia. It is native to the northern Mediterranean Basin, along with some areas in north Africa and Central Asia. The plant has a lengthy history as a medicinal herb, and is currently grown for its essential oil.
Salvia sclarea reaches 3 to 4 ft (0.91 to 1.22 m) in height, with thick square stems that are covered in hairs. The leaves are approximately 1 ft (0.30 m) long at the base, .5 ft (0.15 m) long higher on the plant. The upper leaf surface is rugose, and covered with glandular hairs. The flowers are in verticils, with 2-6 flowers in each verticil, and are held in large colorful bracts that range in color from pale mauve to lilac or white to pink with a pink mark on the edge. The lilac or pale blue corolla is approximately 1 in (2.5 cm), with the lips held wide open. The cultivar S. sclarea 'Turkestanica' bears pink stems, petiolate leaves, and white, pink-flecked blossoms on spikes to 30 inches (76 cm) tall.
Descriptions of medicinal use of the plant goes back to the writings of Theophrastus (4th century BCE), Dioscorides (1st century CE), and Pliny the Elder (1st century CE).
Clary seeds have a mucilaginous coat, which is why some old herbals recommended placing a seed into the eye of someone with a foreign object in it so that it could adhere to the object and make it easy to remove. This practice is noted by Nicholas Culpeper in his Complete Herbal (1653), who referred to the plant as "clear-eye".
The distilled essential oil is used widely in perfumes and as a muscatel flavoring for vermouths, wines, and liqueurs. It is also used in aromatherapy.
In the United States, large scale production is concentrated in northeastern North Carolina in the counties surrounding Bertie County.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Flowering Time: Blooms: V - VII (X).
Distribution in Bulgaria: Growing on dry, rocky, rocky and grassy places, on rocky places, mostly limestone in the plains, foothills and mountains. Distributed from sea level up to 1400 m altitude. (Conspectus of the Bulgarian Vascular Flora) = conspectus&gs_l= Zlc.
Distribution: South Europe. Mediterranean, Southwestern and Central Asia. Introduced and cultivated in many places in Central Europe.
Conservation status and threats: not protected species in Bulgaria by the Biodiversity Law. - Biological Diversity Act - http://eea.government.bg/bg/legislation/biodiversity/zbran_22.08.15.pdf
Medical plant: yes, it is - Medicinal Plants Act - http://eea.government.bg/bg/legislation/biodiversity/ZLR_en.pdf
References: „Флора на НР България”, том IX, БАН, София (1989), Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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