Saponaria officinalis L. Saponaria officinalis L., Sp. Pl. ed. I (1753) 408; Hayek, Prodr. Fl. Penins. Balc. 1 (1924) 217 — Лечебно сапунче Fam: Caryophyllaceae Juss.
Genus: Saponaria L.
Species: Saponaria officinalis L.
English Name: Common soapwort, Bouncing-bet, Crow soap, Wild sweet William, and Soapweed
Perennial plant with pretty thick, branched, largely horizontal reddish root. Stems usually numerous, pompously or face, cylindrical, high 30 - 90 cm, in the upper part slightly branched, usually naked or almost naked. Leaves opposite, oblong elliptical or oval lanceolate, pointed, entire, narrowed at the base into a short stalk, bare or sparsely hairy, with three veins. Blossoms large, located on the handles at 1 - 2 in the axils of the upper leaves, formed loose or compacted besom-like inflorescences. Calyx tubular, up to 2 cm long, typically constricted at both ends, pale green, diluted fiber, the top 5 short and uniform teeth. Petals 5, free, white or pale pink, with wedge oval almost all lamina, up to 1 cm long and narrow lower part.- fingernail. Stamens10. Carpophore with long mostly cylindrical, upper single station ovary and two fibrous stalks. Fruit box equal in length to the calyx, when ripe unfolds, on the top with 4 or 5 mounts. Seeds numerous, kidney and red brown to black with small warts on the surface.
f. officinalis; Saponaria officinalis α. typica Beck, Fl. Nied. Ősterr. 1 (1890) 376. Blossoms simple. Blossom parts or fuzzy almost naked. Diluted fibrous leaves. Spread.
f. glaberrima (Ser.) Hayek, a. c .; Saponaria officinalis β. glaberrima Ser. in DC., Prodr. I (1824) 365. The leaves and blossom parts naked or almost naked. Widespread.
f. pleniflora (Schur); Saponaria officinalis pleniflora Schur, 1. c. Decorative blossom. Cultivated and outcast.
f. alluvionum Du Moul. in Garcke, Fl. Deutschl. ed. 15 (1885) 63. Calyx glandular fibrous. Widespread.
f. hirsuta (Wierzb.); Saponaria officinalis var. hirsuta Wierzb. in Reichenb., Deutschl, Fl. Ill (1843) 120. Calyx densely covered with simple hairs. Fibrous leaves. Widespread
Economic significance. Decorative and medicin plant. Its roots contain up to 36% saponins and are used under the name "red chuven". From: „Флора на НР България”, том III, БАН, София, (1967)
Saponaria officinalis is a common perennial plant from the carnation family (Caryophyllaceae). This plant has many common names, including common soapwort, bouncing-bet, crow soap, wild sweet William, and soapweed. There are about 20 species of soapworts altogether.
The scientific name Saponaria is derived from the Latin sapo (stem sapon-) meaning "soap," which, like its common name, refers to its utility in cleaning. From this same Latin word is derived the name of the toxic substance saponin, contained in the roots at levels up to 20 percent when the plant is flowering (Indian soapnuts contain only 15 percent). It produces a lather when in contact with water. The epithet officinalis indicates its medicinal functions.
Saponaria officinalis 's native range extends throughout Europe to western Siberia. It grows in cool places at low or moderate elevations under hedgerows and along the shoulders of roadways.
The plants possesses leafy, unbranched stems (often tinged with red). It grows in patches, attaining a height of 70 cm. The broad, lanceolate, sessile leaves are opposite and between 4 and 12 cm long. Its sweetly scented flowers are radially symmetrical and pink, or sometimes white. Each of the five flat petals have two small scales in the throat of the corolla. They are about 2.5 cm wide. They are arranged in dense, terminal clusters on the main stem and its branches. The long tubular calyx has five pointed red teeth.
The individual flowers open in the evening, and stay open for about three days. They produce a stronger scent at night and supplement nectar production during the night. The flowers are protandrous: on the second night of blooming, the pollen is released, and the stigma develops to its final position by the third night. Much of the seed production comes from self-pollination. The flowers are visited by various insects including Noctuidae, Sphingidae, bumblebees, and hoverflies.
In the northern hemisphere Saponaria officinalis blooms from May to September, and in the southern hemisphere October to March.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Flowering Time: Blooms: VI - IX.
References: „Флора на НР България”, том III, БАН, София, (1967), Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Distribution in Bulgaria:
In moist sand and gravel areas along rivers and streams and through the bushes in the lowlands and foothills. Spread throughout Bulgaria, until around 1000 meters altitude. Widespread. (Conspectus of the Bulgarian Vascular Flora) = conspectus&gs_l= Zlc.
Distribution: Western, Central, Eastern and Southern Europe, the Mediterranean, Southwest Asia, the Caucasus, Western Siberia. Cultivated in almost all of Europe.
Conservation status and threats: not protected species in Bulgaria by theBiodiversity Law. Законодателство на Република България: Закон за биологичното разнообразие
Medical plant: yes it is - http://lex.bg/laws/ldoc/2134916096
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