Silene conica L. S. conica L., Sp. PL ed. 1 (1753) 418; Rohrb., Monogr. Silene (1868) 92; F. N. Williams, Journ. Linn. Soc. XXXII (1898) 52; VeL, Fl. Bulg. (1891) 58; Hayek, Prodr. Fl. Penins. Balc. I (1924) 260; S. conica subsp. conica Chater et Walters, FL Eur. 1(1924) 180 —Коническо плюскавиче Fam: Caryophyllaceae Juss.
Genus: Silene L.
Species: Silene conica L.
English Name: Sand catchfly
Annual plant (4) 10 - 35 cm tall. Stem usually single, unbranched, erect, smooth, densely covered with short simple (sometimes top interspersed with glandular ) hairs. Leaves linear lanceolate to linear, rarely narrowly lanceolate, pointed at the top, short fiber; basal 2 - 4 (6) pairs in a rosette, from 2.5 to 5.5 cm long and 7 - 9 (13) mm wide; stem leaves 5 - 6 pairs, basically short fused; lower to 5 cm long and 9 mm wide, upper smaller. Inflorescence symmetric or asymmetric with fewer blossoms dihaziy, with shortened internodes or single blossom. Bracts herbaceous, ovate lanceolate, with 3 - 5 (7) veins just short fibrous or sometimes mixed with glandular hairs along the edge with long curly hairs or cilia. Blossoms bisexual female or mixed. Calyx membranous, at flowering cylindrical, rounded at the base; fetal-flask-conical, in basis strongly concave, 10 - 17 cm long by up to 7.5 - 8 mm wide, hairy, sometimes glandular, with 30 prominent green parallel not making anastomosis veins; the teeth of the calyx are triangular-styliform, slightly shorter than the tube, with webbed at the end villous, sometimes glandular edge. Petals red to wine red; nail goal linear wedge, with three parallel veins, at the top extended, ends with two short directed upward ear prominent appendagesupward, 10.5 - 12.5 mm long, not exceeding the teeth of the calyx; plate close back heart-shaped wedge, 3.5 - 4.5 mm long and about 2.5 mm wide, at the top lightly incised; at the base of the crown by two ovoid plates, 3 times shorter than the slide. Filaments densely ciliate; anthers reach up to the top of the crown. Pollen grains with a diameter of about 40 μ. Pistils seated, naked. The bars are 3. Fruit box conical ovoid, sessile, 7 - 9 mm long and about 0.5 mm wide by 6 splayed teeth about 1.5 mm long and about 0.7 mm wide, with 1.3 - 1.4 wide opening, three cavities at the bottom. Seeds reniform, light gray to white, 0.9 mm long, with reticulated or wart-like sculpted surface. Volatility
subsp. conica. At least the edge of teeths of the calyx at the bottom with short glandular cloth. Basal leaves smooth, uncurled in the end. Seeds with wart-like surface. Widespread in Bulgaria.
f. conica. Calyx just on the edge of the teeth with glandular hairs. Widespread in Bulgaria.
f. glandulosa Caldesi in Ces. Pass. Gibelli, Comp. Fl. It. (1886) 794. The calyx and the upper part of the stem with mixed simple and glandular hairs. Eastern Stara Planina (Sliven), Znepole mountain area (Kyustendil).
subsp. conomaritima D. Jord. et P. Pan. in Addenda; S. subconica Klok. in Kotov, Fluoro. USSR IV (1952) 529, ex p., Non Friv. The whole plant, including the edge of the teeths of the calyx coated with a simple cloth. Basal leaves curled at the edges. Seeds sculpted with a mesh surface. Black Sea Coast.
From: „Флора на НР България”, том III, БАН, София, (1967) Silene conica is a species of flowering plant in the pink family known by the common name sand catchfly. It grows in dunes and sandy soils and is widespread in Europe and western Asia. It has an annual life history and produces self-compatible hermaphroditic flowers and occasional male-sterile flowers (i.e., gynomonoecy). Like other members of Silene section Conoimorpha, S. conica is readily recognizable based on its bright pink petals and the prominent, parallel veins on its calyx. In contrast to most flowering plants, S. conica appears to have a very rapid rate of mitochondrial mutation, and it is perhaps most notable for having the largest mitochondrial genome (11.3 Mb) ever identified.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Flowering Time: Blomms: IV - V (VI).
References: „Флора на НР България”, том III, БАН, София, (1967)
Distribution in Bulgaria: On sandy and stony places, grassy places on poor soils, mostly along rivers, railway, dry hills and sometimes as a weed in cereals and row crops. Spread from sea level to 1100 m altitude. (Conspectus of the Bulgarian Vascular Flora) = conspectus&gs_l= Zlc.
Distribution: Northwest, Central and Eastern Europe, the Mediterranean, the Caucasus, Central and Southwest Asia.
Conservation status and threats: not protected species in Bulgaria by theBiodiversity Law. Законодателство на Република България: Закон за биологичното разнообразие
Medical plant: it is not medical plant - http://lex.bg/laws/ldoc/2134916096
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