Sisymbrium altissimum L.
1194(5). S. altissimum L., Sp. Pl. ed. 1(1753)659; Hayek. Prodr. Fl. Penins Balc. 1 (1925) 377; S. pannonicurn Jacq., Icon. PI. Raf. 1(1781)12; Vel., Fl. Bulg. (1891)33; Стоян. Стеф., Фл, Бълг. изд. 1, 1 (1924) 495 — Висока мъдрица
Fam: Cruciferae Juss. (Brassicaceae)
Genus: Sisymbrium L.
Species: Sisymbrium altissimum L.
English Name: Tall tumblemustard, Tall mustard, Tumble mustard, Tumbleweed mustard, Tall sisymbrium, and Tall hedge mustard.
Annual to biennial plant. Stem erect, (20) 30 - 80 (140) cm high, most often in the upper half broadly branched, rarely simple, leafy, cylindrical, with thin longitudinal ribs, at the bottom covered with white, 1 - 2 mm long, downward pointed hard hairs; in the middle and upper part of the top usually naked, green and shiny. Basal and lower stem leaves (mostly during flowering already dried up) with petioles, densely bristly fibrous, deeply feathery divided, on each side with 6 - 8 triangular lance, sharp, serrated, towards the top of the leaf ever shorter lateral shares. Medium stem leaves most often scattered fibrous to almost glabrous, deeply sparsely separated, with long lance linear, serrated, at the base often with ears lateral shares; the upper ones with short petioles or almost sessile, feathery devided, on both sides with 2 - 6 narrowly linear to almost filamentous lateral shares, glabrous. Flowers always single, without bracts. Blossomr petioles 4 - 10 mm long, approximately equal in blossoms, thin, glabrous. Blossm buds closely elliptical. Sepals 4 - 5 mm long and 1 - 1.5 mm wide, when flowering almost horizontally spread, narrowly elliptic to lance, blunt, glabrous, with a white, membranous, transparent strip at the end; the outer tip with a cornicle (most clearly noticeable before the buds are opened); the internal at the base slightly bag expanded. Petals 6 - 8 (10) mm long and 2 - 3 mm wide, twice as long as the calyx, pale yellow (when blossomed to almost white), oblong to ovate, gradually narrowed to the base in the broad nail. Stamens 5 - 6mm long; anthers 1 - 2 mm long, linear, at the base arrow-shaped. The petioles of the pods 6 - 10 mm long, usually thicker than 0.7 mm, bare, deflected from the stem at an angle of 45 - 60 °. The pods (4) 5 - 10 cm long and 1 - 2 mm thick, four ribbed cylindrical, most often straight, spreading, glabrous, sometimes slightly thinner to the tip; the style 0.5 - 1 mm long, cylindrical, with a ball-shaped two-piece lstigma. The caps are convex, with a clearly visible middle and two less pronounced lateral veins. Partition wall thick, porous. Seeds 0.8 - 1.2 mm long and 0.5 - 0.7 mm wide, single row, 40 - 60 in each nest, elongated elliptical, yellow brown, almost smooth, slightly grainy, rough, glossy.
Economic importance. At a young age, it is used for feed - mostly sheep. The seeds contain up to 30% fatty drying oil. Weed is of little importance as it is found in a limited number of crops. Good honey plant.
From „Флора на НР България”, том IV, БАН, София, (1970)
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Sisymbrium altissimum is a species of Sisymbrium. The plant is native to the western part of the Mediterranean Basin in Europe and Northern Africa and is widely naturalized throughout most of the world, including all of North America. It was probably introduced into North America by a contaminant crop seed. The plant grows in soils of all textures, even sand. The plant germinates in winter or early spring. The blooming time is lengthy, and after maturity the plant forms a tumbleweed. Common names of the plant include Jim Hill mustard, after James J. Hill, a Canadian-American railroad magnate, tall tumblemustard, tall mustard, tumble mustard, tumbleweed mustard, tall sisymbrium, and tall hedge mustard.
Tumble mustard forms a tall (up to 5 ft) but delicate-looking plant, with slender, much-branched stems. Its stem leaves are divided into thin, linear lobes, while the basal leaves are broader and pinnately compound. The flowers are inconspicuous and only 1/4 inch wide. They have four usually yellow petals and four narrow, curved sepals. The seedpods are slender and long (2-4 inches). At maturity it dies, uproots, and tumbles in the wind, spreading its seeds.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Flowering Time: Blooms: V - VII (IX). Distribution in Bulgaria: Growing in dry grassy and ruderalized places, along roads and railways, debris and construction sites, deserted places near settlements, fallow land, along the sinura of vineyards and fields, such as weeds most often in winter cereals, flax, fay, alfalfa, rarely in trench crops - corn and sunflower. Widespread, in the plains and foothills up to 1000 m altitude. (Conspectus of the Bulgarian Vascular Flora) = conspectus&gs_l= Zlc.
Distribution: Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe, Southwest Asia, Caucasus, Central Asia. Transferred to Northwest Europe and North America.
Conservation status and threats: not protected species in Bulgaria by the Biodiversity Law. - Biological Diversity Act - http://eea.government.bg/bg/legislation/biodiversity/zbran_22.08.15.pdf
Medical plant: no, it is not medical plant - Medicinal Plants Act - http://eea.government.bg/bg/legislation/biodiversity/ZLR_en.pdf
References: „Флора на НР България”, том IV, БАН, София, (1970), Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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