Solanum dulcamara L.
Solanum dulcamara L„ Sp. PL, ed. 1 (>753) 185; Hayek, Prodr. Fl. Penins. Balc, II (1929) 100; Hawkes, Edmonds, Fl. Eur., Ill (1972) 198; S. assimile Friv., Flora (Regensb.) XXVTII (1836) 439 —Разводник, червено кучешко грозде
Fam: Solanaceae Juss.
Genus: Solanum L.
Species: Solanum dulcamara L.
English Name: Woody nightshade, Bittersweet, Bittersweet nightshade, Felonwood, Poison berry, Scarlet berry, Trailing nightshade, Woody nightshade.
Perennial. Rhizome short, creeping, branched. Stems 50 -180 (200) cm long 2.5 - 5 mm in diameter, climbing abilities or climbing, the foundation woodened, branched from the base or at the top, cylindrical or bulging, narrow to broad rounded ribs, greens, stripped to absently fibrous or just stratified short fiber. Leaves 0.3 - 4.5 cm long, absently short fiber to almost bare stems; rolled sheet from 1.2 - 11.5 cm long, 0.6 - 6.5 (9) cm wide, ovate lance to broadly ovate, the base rounded to heart- or arrow-shaped, long-pointed or sharp, rarely cut the top: lower and upper entire or with 3 - 4 teeth; Stem medium with a wide tip and the base 2 (4) small lance, leaflets, stripped to absently fitting short fiber on both surfaces go only on the streaks densely fibrous. Inflorescences spread, loose, top or side panicle with 10 - 40 blossoms outside recesses or on the leaves: petals axis highly branched, 1.0 - 5.0 cm long by the first branch, naked or with single hairs. Blossom handle portion 8 - 20 mm long, naked, rarely distracted fitting fiber. Calyx 2.5 - 3.0 (5) mm long, bell-shaped; tube naked or with single short hairs; share from 0.3 - 1.5 mm long, broad triangular, rounded at the top, at the top and the edge -fitting short fibrous, rarely naked. Corolla 8 -18 (20) mm in diameter, 3 - 4 times longer than the cup, deep purple; tube funnel; shares 7 - 10 mm long, outstretched star-like, lance triangular, short pointed us or rounded at the top, bare or upper edge and short fiber at the base with two small white spots. Anthers 5 - 7 mm long, pale yellow. Fruit 9 - 15 mm long, 7.5 - 10 mm wide, ovate or nearly spherical, red, shiny. Seeds 2.0 - 3.0 mm long, up to 2 mm wide, round or kidney, whitish or pale yellow, wrinkled mesh.
F. dulcamara. Middle leaves with sagittal partitions or with a pair of small lance petals at the base. Widespread.
F. persicum (Willd.) Marzell in Hegi, Illust. Fl. Mittel. Eur., V, 4 (1927) 2593; S. dulcamara var. persicum (Willd.) Stoj. et Stef., FL . Bulgarian, ed . 1, II ( 1925) 979 ; S. persicum Willd in Roem. et Schult. Syst, IV (1819) 662. Middle leaves no shares and couple notes based in watts. Widespread.
Economic importance. Poisonous herb. Surface part is rich in steroid glyukoalkaloidi - solamarin, tomatidin and others., Glucosides - solatsein, solanein, dulkameretin acid and tanning substances and soponini. Peduncles are used in folk medicine internally in the form of potions as a diuretic and diaphoretic means, and also as a laxative. Topically in the form of compresses is applied to inflammatory processes of the skin, eczema, etc. chronic eczemas.
Flowering Time: Blooms : VI - VIII; fruitful : VII - X.
References: „Флора на НР България”, том IX, БАН, София, (1989)
Distribution in Bulgaria: In moist and shady places in scrub, forest edges, along the banks of rivers and streams. Distributed from sea level up to about 1200 m altitude. (Conspectus of the Bulgarian Vascular Flora) = conspectus&gs_l= Zlc.
Distribution: Europe, Mediterranean ( North Africa ), the Caucasus, Western Siberia, Southwest and Central Asia. In North American, North Americaica naturalized .
Distribution of Solanum dulcamara.
It is native to northern Africa, Europe and Asia, spreading throughout the world. The plant is relatively important in the diet of some species of birds such as European thrushes that feed on its fruits and are immune to its poisons, scattering the seeds abroad. It grows in all types of terrain with a preference for wetlands and the understory of riparian forests. Along with other climbers, it creates a dark and impenetrable shelter for varied animals. The plant grows well in dark areas in places where it can receive the light of morning or afternoon. An area receiving bright light for many hours reduces their development. It grows more easily in rich wet soils with plenty of nitrogen.
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Conservation status and threats: not protected species in Bulgaria by theBiodiversity Law. Законодателство на Република България: Закон за биологичното разнообразие
Medical plant http://lex.bg/laws/ldoc/2134916096
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