Solanum nigrum L.
Solanum nigrum L., Sp. PL, ed. 1 (1753) 186; Hayek, Prodr. Fl. Penins. Balc., II (1929) 101; Hawkes, Edmons, Fl. Eur., Ill (1972) 1977; S. nigrum var. vulgare L., 1. c., Стоян., Стеф., Фл. Бълг., изд. 3 (1948) 1005; S. nigrum f. chlorocarpum (Spenn.) Boiss., Fl. Or., IV (1879) 284; Стоян., Стеф., Китан., Фл. Бълг., изд. 4, II (1967) 942; S. chlorocarpum Spenn., FL Freb., II (1823) 1074; S. nigrum f. viride Neilr., Fl.Nied. Oest. (1858) 535; Стоян., Стеф., Китан., 1. c.; S. suffruticosum Schousb. ex Willd., Emum. PL Horti Berol. (1809) 236 — Черно кучешко грозде
Fam: Solanaceae Juss.
Genus: Solanum L.
Species: Solanum nigrum L.
English Name: Black-berried nightshade, Black nightshade, Garden nightshade, Hound's berry, Petty morel, Poison berry, Small-fruited black nightshade, Wonderberry.
Annual plant. Stems 15 - 150 cm tall, 1.5 9.5 mm in diameter, erect, branched from the base or at the top, rarely simple, grassy or on the base wooden, cylindrical base and branches up with thin, rounded ribs, green, rarely purple up to dark brown in the base; absently just fitting to densely pubescent without glandular hairs. Leaves on 0.5 - 5 cm long, fitting just fibrous stalks; rolled sheets from 1.0 - 10 (13) cm long, 0.8 - 5.5 (-6) cm wide, broadly ovate or rhombic-ovate, wedge-shaped, cuneiform, rarely rounded at the base, sliding down from third to the middle of the leaf handle, the upper half gradually narrowing, tapered at the top or just a short tip pointed, entire or in the lower half wavy serrated; 3 until the teeth on either side of the lamina, triangular, pointed, upper largest, dense fibrous fitting to absently or only the veins beneath densely fibrous, rarely naked. Inflorescences loose hood-like, thyroid with 5 - 8 (-10) blossoms, outside the bosom of the leaves; inflorescences axis (10) 12 - 25 (30) mm long, densely absently fitting filamentous, rarely almost naked; in the mature fruit it is generally curved at the top downwards. Pedicels 1.5 - 3 times shorter than petals axis, fitting densely fibrous. Calyx 1.5 - 2.0 mm long, bell-shaped, naked or absently fitting fibrous; shares equal or to 1/3 shorter than the tube, wide triangular shaped to ovate. Corolla (8) 10 - 12 (18) mm in diameter, 1.5 - 3.5 times longer than the calyx, white; tube naked; shares ovate lanceolate to broadly ovate, pointed or rounded at the top, to densely fibrous absently fitting out. Anthers 1.5 - 2.0 mm long, yellow. Fruit 6 - 10 mm in diameter, round, black, rarely green strawberry. Seed 1.5 - 2.0 (2.4) mm long, almost kidney
Economic importance: Poisonous plant. Young twigs, leaves and stems of the fruits are rich of glukoalkaloides, solamarin, tomatidin, glucosides - solatsein and solanine. It is used in neuroses, fainting fits, stances and others. There is anesthetic and diuretic properties.
Flowering Time: Blooms: VI - IX; fruitful: VII - X.
References: „Флора на НР България”, том IX, БАН, София, (1989)
Distribution in Bulgaria: In places with weeds and degraded areas, along roads, settlements, river banks, hedges of fields and gardens, often through plantations. Distributed from sea level up to about 1200 m altitude. (Conspectus of the Bulgarian Vascular Flora) = conspectus&gs_l= Zlc.
Distribution: Cosmopolitan, absent only in Polar areas.
Conservation status and threats: not protected species in Bulgaria by theBiodiversity Law. Законодателство на Република България: Закон за биологичното разнообразие
Medical plant http://lex.bg/laws/ldoc/2134916096
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Solanum nigrum 1. Solanum nigrum 2. Solanum nigrum 3. Solanum nigrum 4. Solanum nigrum 5. Solanum nigrum 6.
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