Viola odorata L.
2065 (2). V. odorata L., Sp. Pl., ed. 1 (1753) 934; Hayek, Prodr. Fl. Penins. Balc. I (1925) 500; Valent. Merxm. et A. Schmidt, Fl. Eur. II (1968) 272; Exs.: Pl. Bulg. Exsicc. No 168 — Миризлива теменуга
Fam: Violaceae Batsch
Genus: Viola L.
Species: Viola odorata L.
English Name: Wood violet, Sweet violet, English violet, Common violet, Florist's violet, or Garden violet
Perennial without stem plant, 2.5 - 15.0 cm high. The rhizome is thick, branched, forms a rosette of leaves, flowers, and 15 - 25 cm long, about 1.5 mm thick rooting aboveground shoots, developing plants that bloom in the second year. Leaves with petioles, glabrous or sparse, short, bristly, with 5 - 7 lateral veins, shallow, fine, obtuse, toothed, widest in the middle, deep and narrowly heart-shaped at the base, obtuse at the apex, rounded or obtusely narrowed; spring rounded kidney-shaped or rounded heart-shaped, 2.0 - 3.5 cm long and almost as wide, with 3 - 6 (10) cm long petioles; summer rounded kidney-shaped to ovoid-kidney-shaped, 4 - 6 cm long and so wide or slightly narrower, with 6 - 12 cm long petioles. Stipules broadly ovate or broadly lance, 8 - 15 (20) mm long and 3 - 5 (8) mm wide, 1 - 4 (5) times longer than broad, glabrous, sparsely fibrous at the edge, pointed at the apex or dull, entire or with short (up to 1 mm) brown glandular lashes along the edge. Flowers 1 - 10 (15) on rhizome, one in the axils of the rosette leaves, seen in front trapezoidal or rectangular, 1.5 - 2.5 cm high, 1.2 - 2.2 cm wide, with a pleasant odor. Flower petioles erect or slightly deviated to the side, 4 - 10 (15) cm long, glabrous or short-bristled to the middle with two membranous bracts below the middle. Sepals ovate or oblong-ovate, with appendages, 5 - 8 mm long, 2 - 3 mm wide, obtuse, glabrous; appendages rounded or trapezoidal, 1.5 - 2.0 mm long. Petals dark purple, light purple or blue, often whitish at the base, rarely completely white, not overlapping; upper elliptical or oblong-ovate, spread back and sideways, 12 - 16 mm long, 5 - 6 mm wide; lateral elliptically back ovoid to oblong back ovoid, curved downwards, directed forward and sideways, 12 - 18 mm long, 6 - 8 mm wide, at the base with cilia; lower spoon-shaped, inverted ovate with 5 - 7 indistinct, more precisely violet, longitudinal veins, together with the spur 13 - 18 mm long and 8 - 11 mm wide, narrowed at the base into a 2 - 3 mm long grooved claw, passing into the spur; spur blue-violet, thick, obtuse, slightly curved upwards, 3 - 5 mm long, 2 - 3 times longer than the calyx appendages. Ovary glabrous or scattered short fibrous; the style is flattened on the side; the stigma entire, curved and pointed like a beak, as long as the largest diameter of the style. The box is broadly ovoid to spherical, 9 mm long, 8 mm wide, naked or with sparse, short bristly hairs, pink-violet or green-violet, lying on the ground. Seeds pale brown, broadly ovate, 2 - 3 mm long, about 2 mm wide; appendage 2 mm long.
Economic significance. Ornamental and honey plant. It is grown all over the country. There are selected varieties. The flowers, leaves and roots contain violet oil, used in perfumery. The roots also contain the alkaloid violin, which is used in medicine. 120 g of carotene and 289 - 396 mg% of vitamin C were found in 1 g of leaves.
From: „Флора на Н Р България”, том VII, Изд. на Б А Н, София, (1979)
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Viola odorata is a species of flowering plant in the viola family, native to Europe and Asia. This small hardy herbaceous perennial is commonly known as wood violet, sweet violet, English violet, common violet, florist's violet, or garden violet. It has been introduced into North America and Australia.
Viola odorata can be distinguished by the following characteristics:
- the flowers are scented
- the flowers are normally either dark violet or white
- the leaves and flowers are all in a basal rosette
- the style is hooked (and does not end with a rounded appendage)
- the leaf-stalks have hairs which point downwards
- the plant spreads with stolons (above-ground shoots)
These perennial flowers mature at a height of 4–6 in (10–15 cm) and a spread of 8–24 in (20–61 cm). The species can be found near the edges of forests or in clearings; it is also a common "uninvited guest" in shaded lawns or elsewhere in gardens.
Several cultivars have been selected for garden use, of which V. odorata 'Wellsiana' has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.
The sweet scent of this flower has proved popular, particularly in the late Victorian period, and has consequently been used in the production of many cosmetic fragrances and perfumes. The French are also known for their violet syrup, most commonly made from an extract of violets. In the United States, this French violet syrup is used to make violet scones and marshmallows. The scent of violet flowers is distinctive with only a few other flowers having a remotely similar odor. References to violets and the desirable nature of the fragrance go back to classical sources such as Pliny and Horace when the name ‘Ion’ was in use to describe this flower from which the name of the distinctive chemical constituents of the flower, the ionones – is derived. In 1923, Poucher wrote that the flowers were widely cultivated both in Europe and the East for their fragrance, with both the flowers and leaves being separately collected and extracted for fragrance, and flowers also collected for use in confectionery galenical syrup  and in the production of medicine.
There is some doubt as to whether the true extract of the violet flower is still used commercially in perfumes. It certainly was in the early 20th century, but by the time Steffen Arctander was writing in the late 1950s and early 1960s, production had "almost disappeared". Violet leaf absolute, however, remains widely used in modern perfumery.
The leaves are edible. Real violet flower extract is available for culinary uses, especially in European countries, but it is expensive.
In herbal medicine, V. odorata has been used for a variety of respiratory ailments, insomnia, and skin disorders. However, there is insufficient evidence to support its effectiveness for these uses.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia * * * * *
2 plant name records match your search criteria Viola odorata. The results are below.
Viola odorata L.
www.theplantlist.org › tpl1.1 › search › q=Viola odorata
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Flowering Time: Blooms: III - IV, fruitful: V - VII.
References: „Флора на Н Р България”, том VII, Изд. на Б А Н, София, (1979), Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, www.theplantlist.org › tpl1.1 › search › q=Viola odorata
Distribution in Bulgaria: Growing in the enlightened deciduous forests and bushes, mainly in the valleys and valleys of larger rivers. Widespread, from sea level to 1000 m altitude. (Conspectus of the Bulgarian Vascular Flora) = conspectus&gs_l= Zlc.
Distribution: Europe (excluding the far north), Caucasus, Southwest Asia (Asia Minor, Syria).
Conservation status and threats: not protected species in Bulgaria by the Biodiversity Law. - Biological Diversity Act - http://eea.government.bg/bg/legislation/biodiversity/zbran_22.08.15.pdf
Medical plant: yes, it is - Medicinal Plants Act - http://eea.government.bg/bg/legislation/biodiversity/ZLR_en.pdf
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