Achillea millefolium L.
3152 (19). A. millefolium L., Sp. Pl. ed. 1 (1753) 899; Hub.-Mor., Fl. Turkey 5 (1975) 244; Richardson I., Fl. Eur. 4 (1976) 162; Hayek, Prodr. Fl. Penins. Balc. 2 (1931) 639, p.p.; A. magna L., Sp. PI. ed. 2 (1763) 1267; A. millefolium var. crustata Koch, Syn. Fl. Germ., 3 (1857) 320; Стоян., Стеф., Фл, Бълг. изд. 1, 2 (1925) 1127 - Бял равнец
Fam: Asteraceae (Compositae)
Genus: Achillea L.
Species: Achillea millefolium L.
English Name: Yarrow or Common yarrow
Perennial plant. Rhizome thin, cylindrical, horizontal, branched, with single to numerous flowering stems and sterile shoots, with numerous roots. Stems erect or ascending, (10) 20 - 60 (100) cm high, branched only at the top, round, green to yellow-green, sometimes purple at the base, finely longitudinally ribbed, scattered to densely long fibrous or woolly. Leaves diffusely fibrous to bare, double to triple feathery, leaf shares in several planes (in cross section the leaves are semi-cylindrical); basal on 3 - 5 cm long petioles, linear lance, (6) 10 - 20 cm long and 0.5 - 2 (4) cm wide; stems sat down, medium 2 - 9 cm long and 0.5 - 1.2 (2.5) cm wide; leaf axis 0.5 - 1 (1.5) mm wide, entire (rarely serrated); terminal shares linearly lance to linear, 0.2 - 0.5 mm wide, sparsely pointed; upper leaves reaching almost to the inflorescence, usually double-feathery, small. Baskets back ovoid-conical, 50 - 100 (150 and more) on the tips of the branches and stem, forming a complex thyroid inflorescence, 5 - 6 mm in diameter, on short fibrous petioles. The shell is 2.5 - 4 mm wide, conically narrowed at the base; envelope leaves yellowish or greenish, all slightly keeled, with a clearly convex midrib, on the back scattered fibrous to almost naked; outer narrowly elliptical, pointed, shorter and narrower than the rest, innermost oblong-elliptic, blunt, with a dark brown membranous edge; the middle (1.7) 2.4 - 2.7 (3.6) mm long and (0.6) 0.9 - 1 (1.3) mm wide; final blossoms 4 - 6, tongues white (rarely pink to reddish), (1,3) 2,2 - 2,8 (3,1) mm long; inner few, tubular, yellow, corolla spotted glandular. Fruits oblong-elliptic, 2 - 2.1 (2.2) mm long, on the edge clearly white winged.
From; „Флора на Република България”, том XI, БАН, Академично издателство „Проф. Марин Дринов”, София, (2013)
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Achillea millefolium, commonly known as yarrow /ˈjæroʊ/ or common yarrow, is a flowering plant in the family Asteraceae. It is native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere in Asia and Europe and North America. It has been introduced as a feed for livestock in New Zealand and Australia, where it is a common weed of both wet and dry areas, such as roadsides, meadows, fields and coastal places.
In New Mexico and southern Colorado, it is called plumajillo (Spanish for 'little feather') from its leaf shape and texture. In antiquity, yarrow was known as herbal militaris, for its use in stanching the flow of blood from wounds. Other common names for this species include gordaldo, nosebleed plant, old man's pepper, devil's nettle, sanguinary, milfoil, soldier's woundwort, thousand-leaf, and thousand-seal.
Achillea millefolium is an erect, herbaceous, perennial plant that produces one to several stems 0.2–1 m (0.66–3.28 ft) in height, and has a spreading rhizomatous growth form. Leaves are evenly distributed along the stem, with the leaves near the middle and bottom of the stem being the largest. The leaves have varying degrees of hairiness (pubescence). The leaves are 5–20 cm (2.0–7.9 in) long, bipinnate or tripinnate, almost feathery, and arranged spirally on the stems. The leaves are cauline, and more or less clasping.
The inflorescence has 4 to 9 phyllaries and contains ray and disk flowers which are white to pink. The generally 3 to 8 ray flowers are ovate to round. Disk flowers range from 15 to 40. The inflorescence is produced in a flat-topped capitulum cluster and the inflorescences are visited by many insects, featuring a generalized pollination system. The small achene-like fruits are called cypsela.
The plant has a strong, sweet scent, similar to that of chrysanthemums.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia * * * * * Flowering Time: Blooms: VI - VIII, fruiful: VII - X.
Distribution in Bulgaria: Growing in meadows and pastures, grassy and stony places, abandoned mountain fields, sandy and riverside places, in the mountains. Scattered over all our high mountains, between 1500 and 2000 (2300) m above sea level. (Conspectus of the Bulgarian Vascular Flora) = conspectus&gs_l= Zlc.
Distribution: Europe, Caucasus, Southwest and Central Asia, Himalayas, Siberia.
Conservation status and threats: not protected species in Bulgaria by the Biodiversity Law. - Biological Diversity Act - http://eea.government.bg/bg/legislation/biodiversity/zbran_22.08.15.pdf
Medical plant: yes, it is medical plant - Medicinal Plants Act - http://eea.government.bg/bg/legislation/biodiversity/ZLR_en.pdf
References: „Флора на Република България”, том XI, БАН, Академично издателство „Проф. Марин Дринов”, София, (2013), Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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