Atropa bella-donna L.
Atropa bella-donna L., Sp. PL, ed. 1 (1753) 181; Hayek, Prodr. Fl. Penins. Balc., II (1929) 98; Hawkes, Fl. Eur., Ill (1972) 194 — Старо биле, лудо биле
Fam: Solanaceae Juss.
Genus: Atropa L.
Species: Atropa bella-donna
English Name: Belladonna or Deadly Nightshade
Perennials. Rhizome cylindrical, branched. Stems 0.5 - 1.50 (2.0) m high, 5 -12 mm in diameter, with thin slats, upright, highly branched, sometimes almost to the simple, single branches, only at the top green, seldom more or less purple violet, naked to absently glandular hairy. Leaves broadly ovate, oblong-ovate, elliptic to narrowly lance, lower from 2.5 -18.5 (20) cm long, 2.0 - 11.5 cm wide, consistent, above to 8 cm long, 0.5 - 3 0 ( 3.5 ) cm wide, opposite, stems 0.5 - 4.2 cm long, sometimes upper subsessile; rolled sheet of dough at the base broad wedge, on top in varying degrees short to long taper, dark green, naked to short fiber on young leaves beneath veins stripped glandular hairs. Blossoms single, rarely 2, of 0.6 - 2.5 cm long, curved, more or less glandular fibrousi handles. Well 7 - 19 mm long, 8 - 14 mm wide, shallow to deep 5- lobed; shares to 8 mm long, ovate to lance-ovate, prominent tip pointed, glandular hairy in mature fruit star spread. Corolla 1.2 - 2.8 (3.3) cm long, 1.5 - 2.2 cm wide, at the opening of the gum tube bell-shaped or pipe bell-shaped, brown or greenish purple, triangular ovate shares sprung out of the fifth to 1/ 3 of the length of the tube. Stamens shorter to only longer than the corolla, anthers elliptic, whitish. The bar shorter or slightly longer than the corolla. Fruit 15 - 20 mm in diameter, shiny, black , rarely yellowish green , round strawberry flesh usually reddish purple. Seed 1.5 - 2.0 mm long, nearly reniform, blackish .
Economic importance . Highly poisonous plant. Contains maily the alkaloids hyoscyamine, atropine, scopolamine, beladonin. Used as a feedstock in the production of antispasmodic and analgesic medicament ( belatan, belaskuzin, karabularin, bramatropin, euspazmin, ATROPA member sulphate, etc.).
Atropa belladonna or Atropa bella-donna, commonly known as Belladonna or Deadly Nightshade, is a perennial herbaceous plant in the family Solanaceae, native to Europe, North Africa, and Western Asia. The foliage and berries are extremely toxic, containing tropane alkaloids. These toxins include scopolamine and hyoscyamine, which cause a bizarre delirium and hallucinations, and are also used as pharmaceutical anticholinergics. The drug atropine is derived from the plant.
It has a long history of use as a medicine, cosmetic, and poison. Before the Middle Ages, it was used as an anesthetic for surgery; the ancient Romans used it as a poison (the wife of Emperor Augustus and the wife of Claudius both were rumored to have used it for murder); and, predating this, it was used to make poison-tipped arrows. The genus name Atropa comes from Atropos, one of the three Fates in Greek mythology, and the name "bella donna" is derived from Italian and means "beautiful woman" because the herb was used in eye-drops by women to dilate the pupils of the eyes to make them appear seductive.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atropa_belladonna - cite_note-Hofmann-2
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Atropa belladonna is a branching herbaceous perennial, often growing as a subshrub, from a fleshy rootstock. Plants grow to 1.5 metres (4.9 ft) tall with 18 centimetres (7.1 in) long ovate leaves. The bell-shaped flowers are purple with green tinges and faintly scented. The fruits are berries, which are green, ripening to a shiny-black, and approximately 1 centimetre (0.39 in) in diameter. The berries are sweet and are consumed by animals (see Toxicity) that disperse the seeds in their droppings, even though the seeds contain toxic alkaloids. There is a pale-yellow flowering form called Atropa belladonna var. lutea with pale-yellow fruit.
Atropa belladona is rarely used in gardens, but, when grown, it is usually for its large upright habit and showy berries. It is naturalized in parts of North America, where it is often found in shady, moist locations with limestone-rich soils. It is considered a weed species in parts of the world, where it colonizes areas with disturbed soils. Germination of the small seeds is often difficult, due to hard seed coats that cause seed dormancy. Germination takes several weeks under alternating temperature conditions, but can be sped up with the use of gibberellic acid. The seedlings need sterile soil to prevent damping off and resent root disturbance during transplanting. This plant is a sign of water nearby.
Flowering Time: Blooms : V-VII, fruitful : VIII-IX.
References: „Флора на НР България”, том IX, БАН, София, (1989), Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Distribution in Bulgaria:
Through shady forests, clearings and bushes mainly in mesophytic and xerophytic oak, hornbeam and beech communities. Fore- Balkan Mountains, Sofia region, Znepolski region, Vitosha Region, Western frontier mountains, Struma valley, Belasitza, Slavianka, Pirin, Rila and Central Balkan, Rodopi and Strandja mountains, from 450 up to about 1500 m altitude. (Conspectus of the Bulgarian Vascular Flora) = conspectus&gs_l= Zlc.
Distribution: Europe, the Mediterranean, South -West Asia, the Caucasus.
Conservation status and threats: not protected species in Bulgaria by theBiodiversity Law. Законодателство на Република България: Закон за биологичното разнообразие
Medical plant http://lex.bg/laws/ldoc/2134916096
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