Campanula glomerata L.

3015 (6). C. glomerata L., Sp. Pl. ed. 1 (1753) 166; Hayek, Prodr. Fl. Penins. Balc. 2 (1930) 531; Fedorov, Fl. Eur. 4 (1976) 85 - Главеста камбанка 

Fam:   Campanulaceae Adans
Genus:   Campanula L.
Species: Campanula glomerata L.
English Name: Clustered bellflower or Dane's blood


Perennial plant. The root tickened at the base, long. The stem upright or at the base ascending, not branched, (2) 6 - 60 (80) cm high, cylindrical, smooth, sometimes with vague narrow edges, green or reddish purple, bare, almost naked or scattered to evenly short soft fibers; hairs 0.3 - 1.1 mm long. The leaves are softly fibrous, scattered evenly, sometimes below up to densely bristly fibrous, basal ovoid to oblong ovoid, 2 - 5 (9) cm long, 1.5 - 3 cm wide, much shorter or reaching 1/3 of the length of the stem, shallowly rounded tooted, narrowed at the base, cut off, rounded or shallowly heart-shaped, with a long narrow, flat but not winged stem; lower stem leaves with short stems, most often with a narrowed at the base lamina; upper sitting down, semi – enclosing the stem, broadly lance to broadly triangular ovate. Inflorescence rounded, top, with 3 - 20 sitting down or almost sitting down blssoms, at the base with a triangular lance to deltoid clavicles, often the flower stem beneath the terminal inflorescence with several additional axillary inflorescences. The calyx shares narrowly triangular, 6 - 10 mm long, (2,7) 3 - 3,5 mm wide at the base, mostly below the edges with short hairs; the ovary is naked or almost naked. The crown is 20 - 30 (40) mm long, blue violet, trumpet funnel, outer naked or veins with very short, with long soft hairs. The stamens 7 - 12 mm long, with extended at the base, at the edges grooves stems. The box upright, broadly conical to spherical, 6 - 7 mm long, with thin tufted walls, open at the base with 3 pores. The seeds eliptical, 1.1 - 1.2mm long, 0.6 - 0.7mm wide, pale brown or brown, with a narrow, light rim


1   Stem (2) 6 - 15 cm high, at the bottom ascending; the basal leaves reach 1/3 of the length of the stem, with thick soft fibrous, shallow heartbeat lamina ………………………… subsp. serotine (Wettst.) O. Schwarz, Mitt. Thür. Bot. Ges. 1 (1) (1949) 118; C. serotina Wettst., Denkschr. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Naturwiss. Kl. 70 (1901) 337. Middle Rhodopes (north of the village of Hvoyna-local White Church, 1400 m).
1* Stem 20 - 60 (80) cm high, erect, rarely at the base ascending; the basal leaves much shorter than the stem, with scattered to evenly fibrous, basically narrow, cut or shallow heartbeats ............................................................................................................................................................................... 2
2   Leaves soft fibrous …………………................................................................................……. subsp. glomerata. Widespread within the species.
2* Leaves bristle fibrous subsp. hispida (Witasek) Hayek, prod. Fl. Penins. Balc. 2 (1930) 532; C. glomerata f. hispida Witasek, Ann. K. K. Naturhist. Hofmus. 20 (1905) 419. Western and Central Stara Planina Mountains, Znepole Region, Vitosha Region, Western Frontier Mountains (Osogovo Mountain, Vlahina Mountains), Belasitsa, Slavyanka, Pirin, Rila, Western and Central Rhodopes, 500 to 2000 m altitude.
Total distribution. Europe (excluding the extreme northern and southern regions, some of the islands), Southwest (Asia Minor), Central and Eastern Asia.
Note. 1. C. glomerata is a polymorphous species with high morphological variability. In Bulgarian flora it is presented with three subspecies: subsp. glomerata, subsp. hispida and subsp. serotine. C. glomerata subsp. serotina is reported for the first time in Bulgaria. The plants attributed to this subspecies, two specimens with blossoms and one without blossoms, were found in a single deposit in the Central Rhodopes. C. glomerata subsp. serotine is reported for the Alps and the Balkan Peninsula (Fedorov, I.e.), and according to Greuter et al. (1984) the subspecies are distributed only in Italy. Further investigation of the distribution of this taxon in Bulgaria, as well as comparison of the available material (SOM - N 151100) with plants from the classical deposit, which we have not been able to achieve until now, is necessary.
C. glomerata subsp. glomerata and subsp. hispida, distinguished by the emplacement of the list, sometimes differ slightly. Incubation is a variable scar which in both subspecies does not correlate with other morphological features. The plants distributed in the foothills and the oak belt more often have bristle fibrous leaves, which are closer to subsp. hispida. At the same time, there are many transient forms close to both the one and the other.
2. C. foliosa Ten. is indicated for Bulgaria (Velen.1898, Urum 1901, 1905, 1917, 1929, Stoyan, Steph 1948, Velchev et al., 1973) instead of C. glomerata subsp. hispida. C.foliosa differs from C. glomerata on the morphology of leaves, inflorescence and calyx shares. The species is spread in the mountains of  Northern Italy, Albania, Greece and the former Yugoslavia (Fedorov, I.e.).

From  „Флора на Република България”, том XI, БАН, Акад. Изд. „Проф. Марин Дринов”, София, (2013)

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Campanula glomerata, known by the common names clustered bellflower or Dane's blood, is a species of flowering plant in the genus Campanula, belonging to the family Campanulaceae. It is the county flower of Rutland, England.[1]


Campanula glomerata is a perennial herbaceous plant growing to a height of 20–60 centimetres (7.9–23.6 in), with a maximum of 90 centimetres (35 in). The stem is simple, erect and shortly pubescent, basal leaves are petiolated, oval-lanceolate and lightly heart-shaped (cordate), while cauline leaves are lanceolate, sessile and amplexicaul. The inflorescence is formed by 15-20 sessile, actinomorphic and hermaphrodite single flowers of about 2 to 3 cm. They are in terminal racemes or in the axils of upper leaves, surrounded by an involucre of bracts. The corolla is campanulate and pubescent with five dark violet-blue or purplish-blue petals. Flowering period is from June to September.

Distribution and habitat

The species is native to the North Temperate Zone of Eurasia, from Europe to Japan. In Europe it is present almost everywhere except the extreme north.[2] In North America the plant is naturalized.
This plant can be found in forests or dry grasslands, in scrub and open woodland, in grassy but not too wet places, in the edges of woods and along the margins of roads and trails. It prefers calcareous soils, at an altitude up to 1,500 m (4,921 ft) above sea level.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Flowering Time: Blooms: V-VIII (IX), fruitful: VII - X.

References: „Флора на Република България”, том XI, БАН, Акад. Изд. „Проф. Марин Дринов”, София, (2013), Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Distribution in Bulgaria: Grow on grassy and rocky places, on open slopes, on bright forest meadows and mountain pastures, most often on brown and light gray forest soils, usually on silicate rock bases, in foothills and mountains, rarely in hilly plains, from the xerothermic oak belt to the high mountain a belt in communities of Quercus daleschampii, Carpinus betulus, Fagus sylvatica, Pinus silvestris, etc., as well as Juniperus communis subsp. alpina, Vaccinium myrtillus, Bruckenthalia spiculifolia and others. Northeastern Bulgaria (rarely), Prebalkan, Stara Planina, Znepole region, Vitosha region, Western border mountains, Belasitsa, Slavyanka, Pirin, Rila, Sredna Gora, Rhodope Mountains, Strandzha, from 300 to 2500 m altitude. (Conspectus of the Bulgarian Vascular Flora) = conspectus&gs_l= Zlc.

Distribution: Europe (excluding the extreme northern and southern regions, some of the islands), Southwest (Asia Minor), Central and Eastern Asia.

Conservation status and threats: not protected species in Bulgaria by the Biodiversity Law. - Biological Diversity Act -

Medical plant: it is not - Medicinal Plants Act -

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