Campanula rapunculoides L.
3024 (15). C. rapunculoides L., Sp. Pl. ed. 1 (1753) 165; Hayek, Prodr. Fl. Penins. Balc. 2 (1930) 542; Fedorov, Fl. Eur. 4 (1976) 88; Exs. Pl. Bulg. Exicc. №594 - Ряпоподобна камбанка
Fam: Campanulaceae Adans
Genus: Campanula L.
Species: Campanula rapunculoides L.
English Name: Creeping bellflower or Rampion bellflower
Perennial plant. The roots are long, branched, sometimes with cylindrical and rising underground bulges and overhead shoots. Stem (20) 30 - 100 cm high, straight, simple, rarely branched above the middle, naked or scattered to a thick short fiber; hairs 0.3 - 1.3 mm long, protruding and adherent. Basal and the low ones stem leaves ovate, oblong ovoid or broadly lance, 30 - 100 mm long, 20 - 45 mm wide, short scattered to evenly fibrous, large toothed to the tip gradually tapered, basically rounded, with 20 - 90 mm long stems; medium stem leaves oblong ovate or broadly lance, 30 - 85 mm long, 12 - 25 mm wide, sitting down, serrated, scattered to evenly fibrous, sometimes upper surface almost naked; upper stem leaves narrowly lance. Inflorescence simply, racemose, rarely branched. The flowers are unilaterally placed in the bosom of leaves 1 (2) on 2 - 4 mm long stems. The calyx shares linearly lance, 4.5 - 9 mm long, inverted downwards, adherent to the ovary, entire, often on the outer surface, shortly fibrous, with the fruit slightly elongated. The crown is bell-shaped or broadly funnel-shaped, blue violet, 20 - 30 mm long, with a trumpet slightly longer than the wings, with long soft hairs on the inside. The stamens 12 - 16 mm long, with base-extending, silky, fibrous stems. The box 5 - 8 mm long, broadly back conical to almost globular, bare, or scattered to densely short bristle (bristles 0.2 mm), bent downward, at the base with 3 pores. The seeds elliptical, 1.1 - 1.5 mm long, slightly flattened, pale brown, with a narrow, light rim.
From „Флора на Република България”, том XI, БАН, Акад. Изд. „Проф. Марин Дринов”, София, (2013)
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Campanula rapunculoides, known by the common names creeping bellflower, or rampion bellflower, is a perennial herbaceous plant of the genus Campanula, belonging to the family Campanulaceae.
Campanula rapunculoides reaches on average 30–80 centimetres (12–31 in) of height, with a maximum of 120 centimetres (47 in). The stem is simple, erect and lightly pubescent and the leaves are usually shortly hairy. The basal leaves are triangular, narrow, with a heart-shaped or rounded base, jagged edges and are up to 12 centimetres (4.7 in) long. The upper stem leaves are sessile, lanceolate and shortly stalked.
The inflorescence consists of nodding spikelike racemes with numerous drooping flowers. The flowers are bright blue-violet (rarely white), 2 to 4 cm long, with short petioles standing to one side in the axils of the bracts. The bracts are quite different and smaller than the leaves. The sepals are lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, entire, wide at the base up to 2.5 mm. The corolla is bell-shaped, with five deep lobes slightly ciliate. The flowering period extends from June through September. The flowers are pollinated by insects (bees, flies, butterflies, etc.) (entomophily). The fruit is a capsule with five pores near the base, where the seeds are spread.
This plant has its overwintering buds situated just below the soil surface (hemicryptophyte). It spreads by underground rhizomes and produces deep, taproot-shaped tubers. Both are white and fleshy. Because any piece of the roots can sprout into a new plant, it is extremely hard to eradicate.
This plant is native to Europe and western Siberia and it has been introduced to North America, where it has become an extremely invasive weed. It chokes out other plants, and eliminating it is nearly impossible due to its multiple propagation mechanisms.
It grows on grassy places, dry hills, meadows, in deciduous and pine forests, woods, fields and roadsides, along railway lines and hedgerows, preferably in partial shade, in dry to moist sites and on clay soils, relatively rich in nitrogen, at an altitude of 0–2,000 metres (0–6,562 ft) above sea level. It also occurs in cultivated fields as a weed.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Flowering Time: Blooms: V - VIII, fruitfull: VI - IX.
References: „Флора на Република България”, том XI, БАН, Акад. Изд. „Проф. Марин Дринов”, София, (2013), Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Distribution in Bulgaria: Grow in meadows and shrubs, in mixed deciduous and coniferous forests, on grassy and stony silicate terrains, less often on rocky places, on shallow, usually poorly developed soils, limited in the valleys, more often in the foothills and mountains, in communities of Quercus dalechampii, Q. frainetto, Carpinus orientalis, C. betulus, Fagus sylvatica, Pinus sylvestris, P. heldreichii and others. Spread from 200 to 1,900 meters altitude. (Conspectus of the Bulgarian Vascular Flora) = conspectus&gs_l= Zlc.
Distribution: Europe (excluding the Arctic and Islands), Caucasus (Pre-Caucasus), Asia (Iran, Kazakhstan, Western Siberia). Transferred to North America.
Conservation status and threats: not protected species in Bulgaria by the Biodiversity Law. - Biological Diversity Act - http://eea.government.bg/bg/legislation/biodiversity/zbran_22.08.15.pdf
Medical plant: no, it is not - Medicinal Plants Act - http://eea.government.bg/bg/legislation/biodiversity/ZLR_en.pdf
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