Campanula trachelium L.
3022 (13). C. trachelium L., Sp. Pl. ed. 1 (1753) 166; Hayek, Prodr. FL Penins. Balc. 2 (1930) 541; Fedorov, Fl. Eur. 4 (1976) 88 - Коприволистна камбанка
Fam: Campanulaceae Adans
Genus: Campanula L.
Species: Campanula trachelium L.
English Name: Nettle-leaved bellflower
Perennial plant. The root is long, spindly or incorrectly spindly, branched. Stem upright, single or branched, 30 - 100 cm high, narrow sharp ribbed, sometimes reddish violet, bristle; bristles 0.3 - 1.5 mm long. The basal leaves are ovoid or broadly lance with a cut or shallow heart base, 8 - 12 cm long, 6 - 8 cm wide, on 6 - 10 cm long stems, one to two times large toothed, on top tipped, scattered up to evenly short fibrous; middle and upper stem leaves ovate, lance to narrow lance, serrated to finely toothed, short fibrous, 3 - 12 cm long, 0.7 - 6 cm wide. Inflorescence whispering. The blossoms numerous, on short stems or almost seated, in (3) 3 - 7 in groups in the bosoms of the leaves of the main stem and the branches, the ovary in the veins with white bristles, rarely naked. The calyx with no appendages between the shares; calyx shares lance, more or less distant from the crown, 6 - 15mm long, 1.7 - 4.5mm wide at the base, on the veins and edges stiff bristly; bristles in 1 - 3 rows, 0.9 - 1.5 mm long. (12) 15 - 25 (50) mm long, on the outside only on the veins mainly to the top of the shares of the crown with short straight bristles, inside almost naked or soft fibrous. Stamens 12 - 15 mm long, with long grooved stems extended at the base. The box is conical to round, 6 - 7 mm long, with skin-similar walls, opens at the base with 3 pores. The seeds are elliptical, 1 - 1.2 mm long, 0.5 - 0.6 mm wide, brown, with a narrow, light rim.
Subsp. trachelium. Blossoms on short stems; calyx shares 9 - 15 mm long, 3 - 4.5 mm wide; crown (25) 30 - 50 mm long. It does not meet in Bulgaria.
Subsp. athoa (Boiss. & Heldr.) Hayek, Prodr. Fl. Penins. Balc. 2 (1930) 541; C. athoa Boiss. & Heldr. in Boiss., Diagn. PI. Or. Nov. Ser. 2 (2) (1853) 110; C. trachelium var. orientalis Boiss., Fl. Or. 3 (1875) 922; Stoyan., Stef., Фл. Бълг. ed. 1, 2 (1925) 1083. Фвдяядпs seated or almost seated; calyx shares 6 - 8 (10) mm long, 1.7 - 2.5 (3) mm wide; crown (12) 15 - 22 (25) mm long. Widespread within the species.
Note. C. trachelium in Bulgarian flora is represented only with subsp. athoa, a subspecies spread across the Balkan Peninsula and probably in the western and northern regions of Asia Minor. Data on the distribution of C. trachelium subsp. trachelium in Bulgaria (Velenovsky, 1891; Hayek, I., Stoyanov, Stefanov, Kitanov, 1967, Fedorov, 1. c) are not confirmed by this study. They refer to C. trachelium subsp. athoa.
From „Флора на Република България”, том XI, БАН, Акад. Изд. „Проф. Марин Дринов”, София, (2013)
* * *
Campanula trachelium or nettle-leaved bellflower is a species of bellflower. It is a Eurasian blue wildflower native to Denmark and England and now naturalized in southeast Ireland. It is also found southward through much of Europe into Africa.
The alternate name throatwort is derived from an old belief that C. trachelium is a cure for sore throat, and the species name trachelium refers to its use as treatment of the throat in folk medicine. 
Other folknames include Our Lady's Bells because the color blue was identified with the Virgin Mary's scarf, veil, or shawl; Coventry Bells because C. trachelium was especially common in fields around Coventry; and "Bats-in-the-Belfry" or in the singular "Bat-in-the-Belfry", because the stamens inside the flower were like bats hanging in the bell of a church steeple.
Campanula trachelium is a perennial plant with one or more unbranched, often reddish, square-edged stems that are roughly hairy. The leaves grow alternately up the stems. The lower leaves are long-stalked and ovate with a heart-shaped base. The upper leaves have no stalks and are ovate or lanceolate, hairy with toothed margins. The inflorescence is a one sided spike with a few slightly nodding flowers. Each flower has five sepals which are fused, erect and hairy, and the five violet (or occasionally white) petals are fused into a bell that is hairy inside. There are five stamens and a pistil formed from three fused carpels. The fruit is a hairy, nodding capsule.
Campanula trachelium likes humus-rich soil and is found in broad-leaved woodlands, coppices, hedgerows and the margins of forests.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
* * *
Flowering Time: Blooms: VI - VIII, fruitfull: VIII - X.
References: „Флора на Република България”, том XI, БАН, Акад. Изд. „Проф. Марин Дринов”, София, (2013), Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Distribution in Bulgaria: Grow onn dry, grassy and rocky places on a silicate rock base, on shallow brown or gray forest soils, on bushes in hilly plains, foothills and mountains in communities of Quercus cerris, Q. daleschampii, Carpinus orientalis, and in communities of Fagus sylvatica, Carpinus betulus, Acer spp. and others. Widespread, from 200 to 1500 (1700) m altitude (Conspectus of the Bulgarian Vascular Flora) = conspectus&gs_l= Zlc.
Distribution: Europe (excluding the northernmost territories and most of the islands), Caucasus, Western Siberia.
Conservation status and threats: not protected species in Bulgaria by the Biodiversity Law. - Biological Diversity Act - http://eea.government.bg/bg/legislation/biodiversity/zbran_22.08.15.pdf
Medical plant: no, it is not - Medicinal Plants Act - http://eea.government.bg/bg/legislation/biodiversity/ZLR_en.pdf
1. 2. 3.
Back to BEGINNING
© Copy right: K. Nanev© 2012. All rights reserved