Campanula transsilvanica Schur ex Andrae
3017. (8). C. transsilvanica Schur ex Andrae, Bot. Zeitung (Berlin) 13 (1855) 328; Hayek, Prodr. Fl. Penins. Bale. 2 (1930) 530; Fedorov, Fl. Eur. 4 (1976) 85; C. cervicaria var. transsilvanica (Schur ex Andrae) Stoj. & Stef., Фл. Бълг. изд. 1, 2 (1925) 1085; C. transsilvanica subsp. davidovii Urum., Magyar Bot. Lapok 19 (1920) 38; C. cervicaria var. transsilvanica f. davidovii (Urum.) Stoj. & Stef., Фл. Бълг. изд. 1, 2 (1925) 1085 - Трансилванска камбанка
Fam: Campanulaceae Adans
Genus: Campanula L.
Species: Campanula transsilvanica Schur ex Andrae
English Name: The species has no common names
Biennial plant. Root cylindrical, thick, long. Stem upright, simple, 15 - 30 (40) cm high, cylindrical, green or reddish purple, uniform soft fibrous to almost naked; hairs 1,5 - 2,5 mm long. Leaves predominantly on the lower surface and the middle vein softly fibrous, on the edges long grooves, the hairs 1 - 2.5 mm long; the basal (leaves) with 4 - 7 cm long, (0.8) 1 - 2 cm wide, elongated spatula or back lance shallow toothed lamina, gradually narrowed into a wedged long, wide winged stem; Lower stem leaves elongated back lance, with short wide wings stem; the upper broadly lance, sitting down, with a wide semi-enclosing stem, on the edges long grooves base. Inflorescence complicated, composed of a finely captain inflorescence with numerous adjacent flowers and several laterally convergent contiguous groups of flowers, each in the base with a triangular ovate envelope, above the middle erect, pointed, soft fibrous, on the edges grooves, unevenly shallow toothed up to almost entire convicts. Calyx shares oblong lance, 5 - 7 mm long, at the base 2 mm wide, long grooves; the ovary naked or on the veins with single long hairs. The corolla tubular funnel 15 - 25 mm long, about 2 times longer than the calyx shares, violet, outside on the veins with short, inside with long soft hairs. Stamens of 7 - 10 mm long, with extensively grooved stems. The box opens at the base with 3 pores.
Lectotype (hic designates). C. transsilvanica subsp. davidovii Urum. - In pascuis et graminosis m. Pirin, leg. a. 1915 I. Urumov (SOM - №75244!).
Flowering Time: Blooms: VII - VIII, fruitful: VIII - IX.
References: „Флора на Република България”, том XI, БАН, Акад. Изд. „Проф. Марин Дринов”, София, (2013),
Distribution in Bulgaria: Grow on rocky meadows of dark-colored mountain-forest and mountain-meadow soils on limestone or silicate rock base in the coniferous and high mountain belt in communities of Pinus heldreichii, P mugo, Vaccinium myrtillus and others. Vitosha region (Vitosha mountain), Pirin (North and Middle), Rila, mountains from 1800 to 2500 m altitude. (Conspectus of the Bulgarian Vascular Flora) = conspectus&gs_l= Zlc.
Distribution: Romania (Eastern and Southern Carpathians).
Conservation status and threats: protected species in Bulgaria by the Biodiversity Law. - Biological Diversity Act - http://eea.government.bg/bg/legislation/biodiversity/zbran_22.08.15.pdf
Medical plant: it is not - Medicinal Plants Act - http://eea.government.bg/bg/legislation/biodiversity/ZLR_en.pdf
From „Флора на Република България”, том XI, БАН, Акад. Изд. „Проф. Марин Дринов”, София, (2013)
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Campanula transsilvanica Schur ex André is an accepted name
This name is the accepted name of a species in the genus Campanula (family Campanulaceae).
The record derives from WCSP which reports it as an accepted name (record 366574) with original publication details: Bot. Zeitung (Berlin) 13: 328 1855.
See "Status", "Confidence level", "Source" for definitions.
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From “The Plant List” - www.theplantlist.org/tpl/record/kew-366574
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Red Data Book of Bulgaria - ecodb
Campanula transsilvanica Andrae
Campanulaceae – Bellflower family
Conservation status. Endangered [EN B1ab(ii,iii)+2ab(ii,iii)]. IUCN(R), BDA.
Morphology and biology. Biennial to perennial herb. Stems up to 30(40) cm tall. Leaves oblong-lanceolate to broadly lanceolate; lamina 4–7 cm long, serrate; winged-petiolate. Inflorescence compound, of many densely arranged, bracteate capitula of flowers. Calyx teeth lanceolate. Corolla tubular-infundibuliform, violet, 15–25 mm long. Capsule many seeded. Fl. VII–VIII, fr. VIII–IX. Insect pollinated. Reproduction by seeds.
Habitats and populations. Grows in open, rocky grasslands, by forests and shrubs, in the coniferous forests and high mountainous belts, often in communities of Pinus heldreichii, P. mugo, Vaccinium myrtillus, etc., on limestone or siliceous bedrock.
Distribution in Bulgaria. Vitosha region, Pirin Mts (northern), Rila Mts; from 1800 up to 2500 m alt. Reported for western and central Balkan Range (Assyov & Petrova 2006) but needs confirmation.
General distribution. Bulgaria, Romania (eastern and southern Carpathians).
Threats. Grazing, trampling by tourists and domestic animals, setting fires for wood-clearing to establish pastures have negative impact on the species and cause reduction of the population size. Natural disasters (land slides and rain floods) are potential threats for the species habitats.
Conservation measures taken. Protected species according to the national Biodiversity Act. Listed in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants 1997 as rare species. Some localities are situated in protected territories (Rila National Park, including Central Rila Strict Nature Reserve, Vitosha Nature Park, Bayuvi Dupki – Dzhindzhiritsa Strict Nature Reserve) and sites of the European ecological network Natura 2000 in Bulgaria.
Conservation measures needed. Restriction of human activities within the species localities; deposition of seeds to the National Seed Genebank in Bulgaria; elaboration of technologies for ex situ cultivation of the species.
References. Anchev 1984, 1992a; Walter & Gillet 1998; Cheshmedzhiev 2003; Assyov & Petrova 2006.
Authors: Mincho Anchev & Valentina Goranova
From: Red Data Book of Bulgaria – ecodb/ e-ecodb.bas.bg/rdb/en/vol1/Camtrans.html
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