Clinopodium vulgare L.

C. vulgare L., Sp. PL, ed. 1 (1753) 587; Ball, Fl. Eur., Ill (1972) 167; Satureja clinopodium (Benth.) Caruel in Pari. Fl. Ital., VI (1883) 135; Стоян., Стеф., Фл. Бълг., изд. 1, II (1925) 962; Melissa clinopodium Benth. Lab. Gen., Sp. (1834) 392; Calamintha vulgaris (L.) Druce, Ann. Scot. Nat. Hist. (1906) 224; Hayek, Prodr. Fl. Penins. Balc., II (1929) 331; Clinopodium vulgare var. glabrata Vand., Reliq. Form. (1909) 478; Calamintha vulgaris f. glabrata (Vand.) Hayek, 1. c.; Exsv: PL Bulg. Exsicc. No 581—Черновръх

Fam:   Labiatae (Lamiaceae) Juss.
Genus:   Clinopodium L.
Species: Clinopodium vulgare L.
English Name: Wild Basil


Perennials. The root is strong fibrous branch. Stems single or several, 25 - 60 (-80) cm high, simple, rarely slightly branched, gray-green, fibrous, more or less densely covered with simple soft cloth. Leaves 20 - 65 mm long, 10 - 30 mm wide, ovate to elongated ovoid, shallow dull serrated or unevenly spaced sawtooth, pointed or blunt, on the lower surface to the thick stratified fibrous, gray-green, on top evenly coated with thick cover cloth, green, in the lower half of the stem with 5 - 8 mm long handles, to the top subsessile. Inflorescences vertebrae located in the axils of leaves, spaced thick. Bracts slightly shorter than calyx, linear, pointed, with simple feathery arranged long multicellular bristles, mingled with fitting short bristles. Blossom handles 1.0 - 2.5 mm thick short bristly. Calyx 7.0 - 9.5 (-12.0) mm long, slightly narrowed to the middle, pipe-like, densely covered with long hairs and simple multicellular fitting setae, sometimes mixed with scattered glandular hairs at the opening of setae, unformed ringlet; the teeth of the upper lip (1,5) 1.7 - 2.5 (4.0) mm long, the lower two (2,0-) 2.5 - 4.5 (-7.0) mm. Corolla 12 - 15 (-20) mm pale purple, the outer surface of a thick short fiber; shallow incised upper lip, the lower tripartite, the middle share longer than the side, the inner surface short fiber. Stamens verged, the  two longer, reaching the middle of the upper lip; anthers splayed. The bar a little longer than corolla, scattered over short fiber middle; stigmas flat, upper shorter, styliform, lower longer, wider. Wren 1 mm in diameter, rounded, smooth, brown.

Note. In the European part of the range of C. vulgare, Ball (1972) distinguishes two subspecies - subsp. vulgare and subsp. arundanum (Boiss) Nyman. At last he refers described of Bothmer (1967) from Southern Europe subsp. orientate Bothm. and subsp. villosum (DC.) Bothm. The most widespread is subsp. vulgare, occurring in almost all of Europe. subsp. arundanum is widespread in southern Europe. It differs from subsp. vulgare a longer calyx (9.5 to 12.0 mm) and longer teeth of the calyx (upper - 2,5 - 4,0 mm, bottom - 4,0 - 7,0 mm). In Southeast Europe Bothmer (1967) found that there were plants with intermediate characteristics of the calyx, he considers them transition between subsp. vulgare and subsp. orientale. In the current study subsp. arundanum was not established for Bulgaria. It is possible to find in southern parts of Bulgaria.

¹ developed by M. Anchev

From  „Флора на НР България”, том IX, БАН, София (1989)

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Wild basil is a perennial rhizomatous herb with square, upright, hairy stems and opposite pairs of leaves. The leaves are hairy, ovate or lanceolate in shape, and have short or no stalks, wedge-shaped bases and bluntly-toothed margins. The inflorescence is a terminal spike consisting of several loose whorls of clusters of flowers growing in the axils of the leaves. Each flower has a short stalk, five sepals about 10 millimetres (0.39 in) long and five petals 12 to 15 millimetres (0.47 to 0.59 in) in length which are fused into a tube. The flowers are pink, violet or purple and have two lips. Each has four stamens, a long style and fused carpals.[2]


Wild basil occurs in suitable locations in most of Europe, in western and central Asia and in North Africa. Its typical habitat is dry grassland and heathland, usually on limestone or chalky soils.[3]
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Flowering Time: Blooms: VI - VIII, fruitful: VII - IX.

References: „Флора на НР България”, том IX, БАН, София (1989), Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Distribution in Bulgaria: In dry grassy, sandy and stony places in sparse forests and bushes, in the plains and mountains. Spread from sea level up to about 1700 m altitude. (Conspectus of the Bulgarian Vascular Flora) = conspectus&gs_l= Zlc.

Distribution: Europe, the Caucasus, Southwest Asia, Siberia, North America.

Conservation status and threats: not protected species in Bulgaria by the Biodiversity Law. Законодателство на Република България: Закон за биологичното разнообразие

Medical plant: - yes it is -

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