Colchicum autumnale L.

C. autumnale L. Sp. PL ed. 1 (1753) 341; Стеф. Сб. БАН XXI (1926) 72; Hayek Prodr. FL Penins. Balc. III (1933) 27; C. bulgaricum Vel. Österr. Bot. Zeitschr. (1901) 32 ; C. Borisii Stef. Сб. БАН XXII (1926) 63; C. Drenowskii Deg. et Rech. ill Mag. Bot. Lap. XXII (1933) 145 p. p; Китан. Изв. Бот. и-т БАН I (1950) 377 —Есенен мразовец

Fam:   Liliaceae Hall.
Genus:   Colchicum L.
Species: Colchicum autumnale L.
English Name: Autumn crocus, Meadow saffron, Naked lady


Perennials. Tuber-bulb ovoid, 2 - 5 (6) cm long and 3 - 3.5 cm wide. Shell brown, dark brown or brown to black, ± shiny, leathery thin to thick pericarp. Neck 2.5 - 8 cm long, at least up to 1/2 of the length of the leafless vagina or almost equal to it. The vagina thick membranous, constitutes 1/8 - 1/2 of the length of the tube. Leaves 3 - 6 (8), a wide linear lanceolate, erect, bare, flat or folds along its length, on top ± blunted, 9 - 35 cm long, and (0.5) 1 - 4 (5) cm wide, they develop during in the next spring. Blossoms 1 - 3 (7), pale pink, rarely white, sometimes mottled. Perianth leaflets in its free part broadly elliptical, elliptical or linear elliptic, tip blunt or barely pointed only with 13 - 21 veins, 40 - 60 (70) mm long and (4) 5 - 13 (15) mm wide. Outer petals clearly longer than the interior and more than twice longer than the stamens. Tube drained 3 - 4 times longer than the free part of perianth leaflets. Anthers linear, yellow, 6 - 8 mm long, 2 times shorter than the filament handles, which are attached with their middle part. The bars on the top curved and shovel-like expanded, stigma lengthened, unilateral. Box 3 - 6 cm long, by basically expanded, to its peak drained and ends with a short small nose (gore).


var. autumnale. The bars reach up  to 2/3 or more than the length of the free part of the perianth, the top thickened. Leaves linear lanceolate. Widespread.
var. pannonicum (Grsb. et Schenk) Beck. Glassn. XV (I860) 200; C. pannonicum Grsb. et Schenk in Wiegm. Arch. I (1852) 359. The bars reach up to 1/3 of the length of free part of the perianth on top drained. Leaves widely linear. Targovishte, Lukovit, Karlovo, Panagyurishte.

Economic significance. Highly toxic, contains in all its parts alkaloid colchicine (seed from 0.4 - 1.3%) - is used in folk medicine, veterinary medicine and orthodox medicine. Due to its prevalence in meadows and pastures harmful to livestock. Retains toxic properties and also hay. It is cultivated as an ornamental and as raw material for preparation of colchicine.

Note. C. borisii Stef. described characteristics, population and not coming unconfirmed at this beyond the species variability in C. aatumnale L. therefore consider the opinion of Kitanov (1950 1. c.) to fully justified.
From: „Флора на Народна Република България”, том  II, БАН, София, (1964 )

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Colchicum autumnale, commonly known as autumn crocus, meadow saffron[3] or naked lady, is a flower that resembles the true crocuses, but blooms in autumn. (This is not a reliable distinction, however, since many true crocuses flower in autumn.) The name "naked lady" comes from the fact that the flowers emerge from the ground long after the leaves have died back.[4]
The species is commonly cultivated as an ornamental in temperate areas, in spite of its toxicity.
Colchicum autumnale is the only species of its genus native to the United Kingdom, with notable populations under the stewardship of the County Wildlife Trusts. It also occurs across mainland Europe from Portugal to Ukraine, and is reportedly naturalized in Denmark, Sweden, European Russia, the Baltic States and New Zealand.[2]
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Flowering Time: Blooms: VIII - X.

References: „Флора на Народна Република България”, том  II, БАН, София, (1964 ), Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Distribution in Bulgaria: In the damp grassy places and bushes. Widespread in lowland areas and mountainous parts of Bulgaria. (Conspectus of the Bulgarian Vascular Flora) = conspectus&gs_l= Zlc.

Distribution: Central and Southern Europe in part, to the north in Denmark and Romania in the east, south to the middle part of Balkan Peninsula, Central Italy, France, England.

Conservation status and threats: not protected species in Bulgaria by the Biodiversity Law. Законодателство на Република България: Закон за биологичното разнообразие

Medical plant: yes, it is -

1. 2. 3. 4.

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