Crataegus monogyna Jacq.

C. monogyna Jacq., Fl. Austr. Ill (1775) 50, t. 292, f. 1; Hayek, Prodr. Fl. Tenuis. Balc. 1(1926) 755; Franco, Fl. Eur. II (1968) 75; Mespilus monogyna All., Fl. Pedem. (1785) 141; Mespilus oxyacantha (L.) All. subsp. monogyna (Jacq.) Willd., Enum. PI. Hort. Berol. (1809) 524; Стоян. Стеф., Фл. Бълг.,изд. 1, I(1924) 568 — Едноплодников червен глог, обикновен глог

Fam:   Rosaceae Juss.
Genus:   Crataegus L.
Species: Crataegus monogyna Jacq.
English Name: Common hawthorn or Single-seeded hawthorn.


The Common Hawthorn is a shrub or small tree 5–14 m tall, with a dense crown. The bark is dull brown with vertical orange cracks. The younger stems bear sharp thorns, 1 to 1.5 cm long. The leaves are 2–4 cm long, obovate and deeply lobed, sometimes almost to the midrib, with the lobes spreading at a wide angle. The upper surface is dark green above and paler underneath.
The hermaphrodite flowers are produced in late spring (May to early June in its native area) in corymbs of 5-25 together; each flower is about 1 cm diameter, and has five white petals, numerous red stamens, and a single style; they are moderately fragrant. The flowers are pollinated by midges, bees and other insects and later in the year bear numerous haws. The haw is a small, oval dark red fruit about 1 cm long, berry-like, but structurally a pome containing a single seed. Haws are important for wildlife in winter, particularly thrushes and waxwings; these birds eat the haws and disperse the seeds in their droppings.
The Common Hawthorn is distinguished from the related but less widespread Midland Hawthorn (C. laevigata) by its more upright growth, the leaves being deeply lobed, with spreading lobes, and in the flowers having just one style, not two or three. However they are inter-fertile and hybrids occur frequently; they are only entirely distinct in their more typical forms.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Perennial shrubs or small trees. The stems reach 8 m in height, with rounded or broadly pyramidal crown. Shoot nude or early short fibrous. Young twigs reddish brown, the older gray-brown. Thorns relatively few, from 0.5 to 1.5 (2) cm long or absent, rarely leafy. Leaves vary widely as a general shape, size and cutting the lamina itself ; typically 6 - 7 cm long, a wide rounded to broadly rhombic, at the base of the most frequently wedge, rarely rounded, even cut off; shares of lamina 3 - 7, asymmetric, shorter or longer, narrower or wider, the top most stupid, entire or incorrect sharply toothed; shiny on top, dark green, pale below, usually with a thin wax coating, with or without fine hairs (usually veins). Blossoms usually multiblossom (18 blossoms) upright shields in diameter about 5 cm; blossom stems well developed, naked or with rare face cloth; blossoms 8 - 15 mm in diameter. A calyx dish (hipantiy) and sepals naked or with rare hairs; sepals in fruit diverted sideways. Petals white, rounded with short small nail. Stamens usually 20. The bar only one in some cases - and very rare cases seldom - 2. Fruit broadly ovate or nearly spherical, 6 - 10 cm long, light to dark red, with one stone.


1. Leaves leathery, matt or glossy ......................................................................... 2
1*. Leaves not leathery on both sides or only beneath fibrous ................................ 5
2. Leaves matt. Blossom stems and calyx dish (hipantiy) slightly fibrous ...............3
2* Leaves leathery, shiny, naked or only fibrous veins (lower surface) with 3 - 7 usually blunt shares. Blossom stems and calyx dish naked ……… var, splendens C. Koch, Dendrologie I (1869) 159; Hayek, 1. c. Black Sea coast (Varna region), Western Balkan mountain. (Iskar Gorge).
3. Leaves with shallow shares, on the underside  the streaks are fibrous ................. 4
3* Leaves deeply cut, almost to the midrib. ....... f. dissecta (Borkh.) Buia, FL Rep. Pop.RomaneIV (1956) 262; C. dissecta Borkh., Arch. Bot. Roemer (1798) 86; Mespilus fissa Poir. in Lam., Encycl. Meth. Bot. Suppl. (1813) 72; C. laciniata Stev. in Besser, Enum. Pl. Volhyn. (1822) 38. Distributed in the Rhodopes.
4. The bar upright. . .f. monogyna; C. monogyna var. typica Beck f. coriacea Podp., Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien LII (1902) 649. Widespread.
4 * The bar is tucked at the bottom and the upper horizontal hemmed. . . . f. kyrtostyla (Fingerh.) Beck, Ann. Naturh. Mus. (Wien) II (1887) 96; C. kyrtostyla Fingerh., Linnaea IV (1829) 372; C. calycina Peterm. subsp. curvisepalia (Lindm.) Franco, Feddes Repert. LXXIX (1968) 39. Spread.
5. Relatively low shrub. Leaves small (1.5 - 2.5 cm long), upper side is dark and shiny, below are fibrous. Blossom stems with rare hairs. Small fruits. .. var. microphylla Uechtr; C. brevispina Kunze, Flora XXIX (1846) 737; C. monogyna Jacq. var. brevispina (Kunze) Dipp., Handb; Laubholz. Ill (1893) 459; Hayek 1. c. Thracian Plain (Svilengrad region).
5*. Relatively low shrub. Leaves a large, wedge-shaped at base, reverse ovate, with 3 - 5 shares peaked, bottom fiber. Blossom stems and hipantiy (Calyx dish) thick fluffy, relatively large fruit. . . .var. azarella (Griseb.) Hayek, op. cit., 756; C. monogyna subsp. azarella Franco, Collect. Bot. (Barcelona) VII (1968) 471; C. azarella Griseb., Fl Rumel. Bithyn. I (1843) 88. Black Sea coast, northeastern Bulgaria, Struma valley (Petrich).

Economic importance. In the past, ordinary hawthorn was widely used by man. Blossms, seeds, fruits, bark, wood and roots are used for different purposes - for surrogate coffee, to add to the flour for bread, to obtain brandy, for dyeing wool and cotton fabrics, different joinery, too much in folk medicine for the treatment of various diseases, the creation of a variety of garden flowers and leaves races for decorative purposes.
Now its use is much more limited. The blossoms and leaves contain krategova acid, sitosterol, purine derivatives, choline, isoamylamine, various alkylamine etc., So is used in folk medicine and ofi¬tsialnata to enhance cardiac insomnia and nervousness, with shortness of breath, angina pectoris and etc. Artificially created human forms, as: f. flore rosea hort. (with pink corolla), f. flore roseo-pleno hort. (with pink leafy whorl), f. flore rubro hort. (red corolla), f. flore rubro-pleno (red leafy whorl), f flore albo-pleno hort. (white leafy whorl), etc., are grown in parks and gardens (and even in the streets) as ornamental trees.

From: „Флора на НР България, том V, БАН, София, (1973)”

Flowering Time: Blooms: V-VI, fruitful: VIII-IX.

References: „Флора на НР България, том V, БАН, София, (1973)”

Distribution in Bulgaria: Around shrubs and rare woods (mainly in the outskirts their) in hilly terrain and riverside slopes almost everywhere single. Across the country Bulgaria from the lowlands up to 1500 m above the sea. altitude in the mountains. (Conspectus of the Bulgarian Vascular Flora) = conspectus&gs_l= Zlc.

Distribution: Europe (excluding Arctic parts Baltic- and southeastern part of the USSR and also without Azores), almost all of Asia, North Africa.

Conservation status and threats: not protected species in Bulgaria by theBiodiversity Law. Законодателство на Република България: Закон за биологичното разнообразие

Medical plant: it is not medical plant -

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

Crataegus monogyna 1. Crataegus monogyna 2.Crataegus monogyna 3. Crataegus monogyna 4. Crataegus monogyna 5. Crataegus monogyna 6.

Crataegus monogyna 7. Crataegus monogyna 8. Crataegus monogyna 9. Crataegus monogyna 10. Crataegus monogina 11.


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