Daucus carota L.
2297 (3). D. carota L., Sp. Pl. ed. 1 (1753) 242; Hayek, Prodr. Fl. Penins. Balc. I (1927) 1051; Heywood, Fl. Eur. II (1968) 374 — Обикновен морков
Fam: Umbelliferae Juss. (Apiaceae}
Genus: Daucus L.
Species: Daucus carota L.
English Name: Wild carrot, Bird's nest, Bishop's lace, and Queen Anne's lace
Annual - biennial plant. The root is spindle-shaped, unbranched or very slightly branched, thin, woody, in the cultivated forms strongly fleshy thickened, 2 - 6 (-8) cm in diameter, orange-red, sweet. Stem 20 - 150 (-200) cm high, erect, ridged, branched at the top or even from the base, to varying degrees rough bristly fibrous to almost or rarely completely naked. Leaves 10 - 25 cm long and 3 - 8 cm wide, 2 to 4 times feathery-like divided, ovate, oblong-ovate to oblong or triangular with bristly hairs or almost glabrous; the basal ones with petioles, the upper stems sitting on elongated and white membranous vaginas at the end; end sections lance, ovate or elliptical, feathery-like cut or serrated; upper leaves with narrower, almost linear lobes. Complex umbels concave, flat or convex; main rays numerous, uneven, ridged, roughly bristly fibrous or glabrous, basically with a sheath of numerous, 1 to 2 times feathery-like cut into thin linear shares, to the base at the end membranous sheath leaflets, shorter or equal to the rays . Umbels with numerous blossoms; bracts numerous, three-part or rarely feathery-like divided, membranous and ciliate on the edge, usually longer than the flowers, those of the inner awnings simple entire. Calyx with small, triangular ovoid teeth. Petals white, yellowish, pink to reddish, often in one or more colors from the central umbel dark red, back ovoid, slightly cut at the top and in the cutout with an inwardly turned sharp part, the outer of the final flowers 1.5 - 3.0 ( -4) mm long, longer than the others. Fruits 2 - 4 mm long and 1 - 2 mm wide, elliptical or ovoid, with 5 main and 4 intermediate ribs; the main ribs covered with 2 rows of short, spreading bristles, the intermediate ribs with a row of spikes not longer than the width of the mericarps; the spines at the base extended but not joined together in a wing-like base, at the top with a star-shaped lock of short, pointed down sharp bristles or simple, straight, less often with 1 - 2 hooks; the stylopodium is conical, with columns longer than it; mericarps in cross section semicircular to elliptical, the channels 1 below the secondary ribs with a triangular shape and 2 elliptical on the inside.
1 The root is slightly thickened, thin, whitish ........................................................................................................................................ 2
1* Root fleshy thickened, orange-red to yellow-orange ........................... subsp. sativus (Hoffm.) Arcang., Gomp. Fl. Ital. (1882) 299; D. sativus (Hoffm.) Roehl., Deutschl. Fl. II (1812) 213; D. carota var. sativa Hoffm., Deutschl. Fl. ed. 1 (1791) 91; Стоян. Стеф. Китан., Фл. Бълг. нзд. 4, 11 (1967) 811. Cultivated with different varieties throughout the country.
2 The top complex umbel 5 - 10 cm in diameter. The spines on the intermediate ribs of the fruits at the top are simple, straight or curved. The leaves in their general outline are oblong to ovate ............................................................................................... subsp. carota. Widespread.
2* The top complex umbel (10-) 12 - 20 (-30) cm in diameter. The spines on the intermediate ribs of the fruit, on top with a star-shaped rat of hooked bristles. The leaves in their general outline are triangular ........................... subsp. maximus (Desf.) Ball, Jotirn. Linn. Soc. London / (Bot.) XVI (1878) 476; D. maximus Desf., Fl. All. I (1798) 241; Стоян. Стеф., op. c. изд. 2, p. 782; D. carota var. rectiradius Vel., Fl. Buig. (1891), 197. Black Sea coast, Northeastern Bulgaria, Struma valley (Sandansko), Thracian lowland and Tundzha hilly plain.
Economic significance. The cultivated form is grown all over the country because of the root crop, which is used for food. Contains carotenoids (provitamin A), vitamin B1, B2 and C, pantothenic acid, flavonoids, anthocyanins, sugars (3 - 15%), coumarin derivative umbeliferon and others. Due to its rich content of vitamins, it is used as a valuable food for hypo- and avitaminosis. It is also used as a gentle laxative. The fruits contain essential oil (up to 1.6%) and fatty oils (11 - 13%). The fruits are also used to prepare preparations with antispasmodic action, similar to papaverine, and are used in atherosclerosis, coronary insufficiency and angina. Two bases were isolated from the leaves: daucine and pyrrolidine. The flavonol aglycones quercetin and kaempferol are found in the flowers. Carrots are also important as a good honey plant.
From: „Флора на Н. Р. България”, том VIII, БАН, София, (1982)
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Daucus carota, whose common names include wild carrot, bird's nest, bishop's lace, and Queen Anne's lace (North America), is a white, flowering plant in the family Apiaceae, native to temperate regions of Europe and southwest Asia, and naturalized to North America and Australia.
Domesticated carrots are cultivars of a subspecies, Daucus carota subsp. sativus.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Flowering Time: Цъфти: VI - IX.
Distribution in Bulgaria: Growing in dry grassy and stony places, along roads and fences, abandoned fields and desolate lands. Weeds in crops, trench crops, fruit and vegetable gardens, vineyards, etc. distributed up to 950 m altitude. (Conspectus of the Bulgarian Vascular Flora) = conspectus&gs_l= Zlc.
Distribution: Europe, Asia and North Africa.
Conservation status and threats: not protected species in Bulgaria by the Biodiversity Law. - Biological Diversity Act - http://eea.government.bg/bg/legislation/biodiversity/zbran_22.08.15.pdf
Medical plant: no, it is not medical plant - Medicinal Plants Act - http://eea.government.bg/bg/legislation/biodiversity/ZLR_en.pdf
References: „Флора на Н. Р. България”, том VIII, БАН, София, (1982), Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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