Epipactis helleborine (L.) Crantz

ex: Е. palustrfs (L.) Crantz Stirp. Austr.( 1769) 462; Helleborine palustris Hayek Prodr. Fl. Penins. Balc. 111(1933) 411; Serapias Helleborine η. palust­ris L. Sp. PL ed. 1 (1753) 950 — Блатен дремник ( "Флора на НР България", том II, БАН, София, (1964),

Fam:   Orchidaceae Lindl.
Genus:   Dactylorhiza Necker ex Nevski, (1937)
Species: Epipactis helleborine (L.) Crantz
English Name: Broad-leaved helleborine


Epipactis helleborine (L.) Crantz

Breitblättrige Stendelwurz

Beschreibung: Pflanze schlank oder robust, 20 - 70 cm hoch. Stengel unten kahl, oberwärts bisweilen leicht flaumig behaart. Laubblätter 5 - 9, gewöhnlich groß, abstehend, 6 - 15 cm breit, eiförmig bis eiförmig-lanzettlich, die unteren kürzer und breiter, nach oben kleiner und schmäler werdend, die obersten tragblattartig. Blütenstand vor dem Aufblühen seitlich übergebogen, bis zu 35 cm lang, locker oder dicht, meistens vielblütig. Blüten mittelgroß, grünlich bis rötlich. Tragblätter lanzettlich, zugespitzt, abstehend oder nach abwärts gerichtet. Perigonblätter anfangs glockig, zuletzt aber weit abstehend, eiförmig bis lanzettlich, 8 - 12 mm lang, Sepalen grüm oder olivgrün, bisweilen braun überlaufen. Petalen deutlich kürzer, hellgrün, rosa getönt. Lippe nach vorne gerichtet. Hinterlippe topfförmig, vorne mit enger Mündung, außen grün, innen dunkelbraun, glänzend, 4 - 6 mm lang. Vorderlippe herz- bis eiförmig mit zurückgeschlagener Spitze, bis zu 5 mm lang, am Grunde meist mit zwei glatten Höckern. Klebdrüse am oberen Narbenrand, weißlich, rund. Entwickelt vielfach nichtblühende Sprosse.
Blütezeit: Von Juni (im Süden) bis August.
Höhenverbreitung: Von der Küste bis über 2500 m.
Standort: In Nadel- und Laubwäldern, im Gebüsch, auf Waldwiesen, selten in offenen Lagen.
Bastarde: Sehr selten mit E. atrorubens, E. leptochila, E. microphylla und E. purpurata.
Bildnachweis: 10. 7. 1977, Trikala (Griechisches Festland), H. Baumainn.

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Description: Plant slender or rugged, 20 - 70 cm high. The bottom of the stem bare, upper ward sometimes hairy, slightly fluffy. Leaves 5 - 9, usually large, spreading, 6 - 15 cm wide, ovate to ovate-lanceolate, the lower shorter and wider, smaller upward and narrowing, the uppermost bract-like. Inflorescence laterally bent before blooming, up to 35 cm long, loose or dense, many-flowered usually before blooming. Blossoms of medium size, greenish to reddish. Bracts lanceolate, pointed, protruding or directed downward. Perigon leaflets at first bell-shaped, but last far spreading, ovate to lanceolate, 8 - 12 mm long, sepals green or olive green, sometimes overcrowded brown. Petals significantly shorter, light green, pink tinted. Lip forward. Rear lip of cup-shaped, front with backward needlepoint, a green front and dark brown, shiny, 4 - 6 mm long. Front lip heart to ovate with folded back tip, up to 5 mm long, usually at the bottom with two smooth humps. Sticky gland to the edge of the stigma, whitish, round. Developed often not flowering shoots.
Flowering time:  From June (in the south) to August.
Height Spread: From the sea level to over 2500 m.
Habitat:In coniferous and deciduous forests, in bushes, on glades, rarely in open terrain.
Bastards: Very rare with E. atrorubens, E. leptochila, E. microphylla and E. purpurata.
Origin pictures: 10. 7. 1977, Trikala (Mainland Greece), H. Baumainn.
From: "Die wildwachsende Orchideen Europas", H. Baumann, S. Künkele, Kosmos, Stuttgart, (1982)

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A perennial plant. Rhizome with long internodes. Stem up to 50 centimeters. Lower leaves elliptic, the upper lanceolate, pointed. Inflorescence rare. Blossms nutate. Bracts usually shorter than blossoms. External bract leaflets greenish,  whitish interior, all collected in the bell helmet. Lip white. Rear part groove-shaped, mid - yellow, heart-shaped front, flat, front dumb, spread associated with rear through articulation and two combs at the base.
"Flora of PR of  Bulgaria", Volume II, BAS (1964)

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Epipactis helleborine grows to a height of 80 cms has broad dull green leaves which are strongly ribbed and flat. The flowers are arranged in a long drooping racemes with dull green sepals and shorter upper petals. The lower labellum is pale red and is much shorter than the upper petals.[3]


It is widespread across much of Europe and Asia from Portugal to China, as well as northern Africa.[1][4][5] In North America, it is widely naturalized mostly in the Northeastern United States, eastern Canada and the Great Lakes Region, but also in scattered locations in other parts of the continent.[6][7][8] In the US it is sometimes referred to as the "weed orchid" or "weedy orchid" and is increasingly considered invasive, in areas including Michigan,[9] Wisconsin[10] and the San Francisco Bay Area.[11]


Found in woods and hedge-banks[12]and often, in Belfast, not far from paths near human activity.[13] Eight varieties of Epipactis helleborine in central Europe (Lower Silesia, Poland) had their nectar studied and they were found to contain naturally occurring oxycodone (as well as another narcotic like opioid) in minute amounts.[14]
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Flowering Time: Blooms: V - VIII.

References: "Die wildwachsende Orchideen Europas", H. Baumann, S. Künkele, Kosmos, Stuttgart, (1982), "Flora of PR of  Bulgaria", Volume II, BAS (1964), Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Distribution in Bulgaria: In marshy areas and near water in various parts of the country, but more often in the Western Bulgaria, especially in the foothills and lower mountain belt up to 1000 m altitude. (Conspectus of the Bulgarian Vascular Flora) = conspectus&gs_l= Zlc.

Distribution: Almost all of Europe, except the northernmost parts of the continent, West Asia to Transbaykal North Africa.

Conservation status and threats: not protected species in Bulgaria by the Biodiversity Law. Законодателство на Република България: Закон за биологичното разнообразие

Medical plant: - it is not -


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