Euphorbia cyparissias L.
1983 (20). Е. cyparissias L., Sp. Pl. ed. 1 (1753) 461; Boiss. in DC., Prodr XV, 2 (1862) 160; Fl. Or. IV (1879) 1125; Hayek, Prodr. Fl. Penins. Balc. I (1924) 131; Rössler, Beich. Bot. Centr. LXII (1943) 136; Прох., Фл. СССР XIV (1949) 439; Smith et Tutin, Fl. Eur. II (1968) 226; E. esuloides Ten., Syll. Fl. Nap. (1811) 258, non Vel.; Exs.: Pl. Bulg. Exsicc. No. 469 — Обикновена млечна
Fam: Euphorbiaceae Juss.
Genus: Euphorbia L.
Species: Euphorbia cyparissias L.
English Name: Cypress spurge
Perennial plant. . Rhizome thin, almost horizontal. Stems single or numerous, (3 - 4 - 6), up to 45 (50) cm high, erect, up to 5 mm in diameter, round, finely grooved, at the base at fruit ripening usually leafless, with numerous traces of drooping leaves, purple, green, yellow-green or gray-blue-green, glabrous or sparsely fibrous, at the top with numerous infertile and fruiting branches, often reaching and exceeding the apical inflorescence, rarely simple with numerous (3 - 12) lateral flowering branches or stems, branched at the base, numerous. Stem leaves dense, sat down, narrow linear, rarely linear lance or linearly spatulate, uniformly broad in length, obtuse at the apex, entire, narrowly curled at the edge down, with a clear midrib; those of infertile branches densely located, closely linear to acicular, 10 - 18 mm long and 2 - 5 mm wide. Top flowering branches 10 - 22 (rarely less than 10 to 5), 1.0 - 3.5 cm long, at the top 1 - 2 (3) times bipartite. Inflorescence leaves equal in number with the apical flowering branches, linear-lance or linear, obtuse, glabrous, green, 10 - 20 mm long and 1.0 - 3.5 mm wide. Bracts ovate-rhombic, obtuse or short-pointed, glabrous, golden yellow during flowering, yellow to orange-yellow, often purple when ripe, 3 - 5 mm long and 5 - 10 mm wide (up to 2 times longer). long than wide), two at a time. Perianth bell-shaped, sat down, glabrous, 2.8 - 3.2 mm long and 2.1 - 2.8 mm wide, shares trapezoidal, incised, densely silky ciliate inside; glands 4, semicircular, yellow to dark brown, sometimes purple, 0.8 - 2.0 mm long and 0.4 - 1.4 mm wide, with short (up to 1.2 mm) obtuse horns. The box on petiole up to 1.2 mm long; ovoid, conically narrowed towards the top, 2.8 - 3.2 mm long and (3.5) 3.9 - 4.1 mm wide, deeply three-part, naked; shares of the back rounded, with a smooth midrib, on both sides densely covered with perfectly short warts or fine-grained rough; styles up to 1 mm long, from the base of 1/2 fused, at the top short bipartite, thickened. Seeds ovoid, 2.4 - 2.5 mm long (without appendage (1.7) 2.0 - 2.2 mm), 1.5 - 1.7 mm wide and 1.4 - 1.6 mm thick, the four surfaces convex, the edges indistinct; the cross section is round; chalazity flat, broad, with a short navel; hilus area flat, seam wide, dark, shallow sunken; gray-brown to brown under gray, reddish-gray to reddish cover, rarely thinning in places - the seed stained; the surface is smooth, the fine structure is reticulate; appendage warty, forward eastern, adhering to the hilus zone, yellow or yellow-red.
1984 (21). Е. esula L., Sp. Pl. ed. t (1753) 461; Smith et Tutin, Fl. Eur. II (1968) 225 — Правостъблена млечка
From: „Флора на Н. Р. България”, том VII, Издателство на БАН, София, (1979)
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Euphorbia cyparissias, the cypress spurge, is a species of plant in the genus Euphorbia. It is native to Europe and was introduced to North America in the 1860s as an ornamental plant.
Natural habitat types include dunes, pannes, coastal headlands and grasslands. In North America it is commonly found in the dry, gravelly soil of roadsides, pastures, and meadows. Cypress spurge thrives in open, disturbed areas.
The plant ranges from 8 inches (20 cm) to 16 inches (40 cm) in height. Its petal-like bracts are usually green-yellow, maturing to purple or red from May to August. The mature fruit explodes, spreading seeds up to 5 m (16 ft). The plant also reproduces through lateral root buds, which allow it to spread densely. It can be identified by its leaves, which are small and linear, measuring up to 4 cm (1.6 in) long by only 1 to 2 mm (1⁄32 to 3⁄32 in) wide.
This plant is considered a noxious weed in many places, including Colorado in the United States. Like some other non-native plants, it invades the habitat of native species. It is known to be harmful to cattle and horses, but not sheep. It can be difficult to control. Biological pest control methods have been attempted, involving the release of several European insect species in North America. Certain flea beetles have been effective, but there are concerns about the release of non-native insects into the region.
Parasites of this species include Uromyces pisi-sativi, a fungus.
Anthrenus scrophulariae may frequently be found on this plant. This plant is attractive as an ornamental but its invasive nature makes it necessary to control its spread; its root spread is more invasive than its ability to self-seed.
Toxicity and uses
While the roots have sometimes been used as a purgative, it can be poisonous if taken in quantity, and animals can be poisoned by eating hay containing it. Contact with the sap can cause skin reactions. WARNING: This plant has several irritants. The milky sap is a skin irritant that can cause burns/blisters in some individuals. Late season mature bracts have tiny hair like barbs. Once they are in your skin can cause mild irritation that can last for years. If you work with this plant use gloves and long sleeves. When you work this plant do not touch your skin with gloves on.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Flowering Time: Blooms: IV - VIII, fruitful V - VIII (rarely secondary flowering is observed in IX - XI).
Distribution in Bulgaria: Adventively in pastures and meadows, in forests, on rocky places, often along roads, railways. lines or in uncultivated areas, such as ruderally near settlements, in the communities of Andropogon ischaemum, A. gryllus, Festuca pseudovina, F. fallax, Poa bulbosa, Nardus stricta, Agrostis capillaris, A. vulgaris, Brachypodium pinnatum, Bromus commutatus, Lolium perenne, Cynodon dactyIon, Anthoxanthum odoratum, Amygdalus nana, Quercus daleschampii, Q. conferta, Coryllus avellana, Fagus sylvatica, Carpinus betulus, C. orientalis, Pinus nigra, P. sytvestris, in the plains and mountains. Distribution, from sea level up to 2200 m altitude. (Conspectus of the Bulgarian Vascular Flora) = conspectus&gs_l= Zlc.
Distribution: Europe (excluding the extreme north and south).
Conservation status and threats:
not protected species in Bulgaria by the Biodiversity Law. - Biological Diversity Act - http://eea.government.bg/bg/legislation/biodiversity/zbran_22.08.15.pdf
Fam. Euphorbiaceae Juss. is protected in Bulgaria by the Biodiversity Law. - Biological Diversity Act - ttp://eea.government.bg/bg/legislation/biodiversity/zbran_22.08.15.pdf
Medical plant: no, it is not - Medicinal Plants Act - http://eea.government.bg/bg/legislation/biodiversity/ZLR_en.pdf
References: „Флора на Н. Р. България”, том VII, Издателство на БАН, София, (1979), Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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