Family Violaceae Batsch


Fam:   Violaceae Batsch
Genus:   Viola L.
English Name: Violets, Pansies, Violet Family


Grasses, semi-shrubs, rarely shrubs, and exceptionally lianas and trees with simple, successive, rarely opposite leaves and non-falling scaly or leaf-like stipules. Blossoms most often single and irregular, rarely regular, bisexual or unisexual. Sepals 5, free, often unequal with each other, not falling, remaining with the fruit. Petals 5, free, unequal, usually falling, rarely not falling (dry after flowering). Stamens 5, free or fused in a tube or truncated cone; anthers double nested, erect, opening along two longitudinal lines on the inside, the connective has grown at the upper end into a scaly appendage. The ovary of 3 (2 - 5) carpels with parietal placenta and upper single-celled ovary, hidden between the stamens; seed buds anatropic; the style is whole; the stigma like a beak, head or disc-shaped, bipartite and so on. The fruit is a box with skin or slightly hardened pericarp, in some tropical species - strawberry. Seeds with a straight germ.
¹ Developed by D. Delipavlov.

From:   „Флора на Н Р България”, том VII, Изд. На Б А Н, София, (1979)

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Violaceae is a family of flowering plants established in 1802, consisting of about 1000 species in about 25 genera. It takes its name from the genus Viola, the violets and pansies.
Older classifications such as the Cronquist system placed the Violaceae in an order named after it, the Violales or the Parietales. However, molecular phylogeny studies place the family in the Malpighiales as reflected in the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG) classification, with 41 other families, where it is situated in the parietal clade of 11 families. Most of the species are found in three large genera, Viola, Rinorea and Hybanthus. The other genera are largely monotypic or oligotypic. The genera are grouped into four clades within the family. The species are largely tropical or subtropical but Viola has a number of species in temperate regions. Many genera have a very restricted distribution.


Though the best-known genus, Viola, is herbaceous, most species are shrubs, lianas or small trees. The simple leaves are alternate or opposite, often with leafy stipules or the stipules are reduced in size. Some species have palmate or deeply dissected leaves. Many species are acaulescent. The flower are solitary in panicles. Some species have cleistogamous flowers produced after or before the production of typical flowers with petals. Flowers are bisexual or unisexual (e.g. Melicytus), actinomorphic but typically zygomorphic with a calyx of five sepals that are persistent after flowering. Corollae have five mostly unequal petals, and the anterior petal is larger and often spurred. Plants have five stamens with the abaxial stamen often spurred at the base. The gynoecium is a compound pistil of three united carpels with one locule. Styles are simple, with the ovary superior and containing many ovules. The fruits are capsules split by way of three seams. Seeds have endosperm.[1][2][3]

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Violaceae, or the violet family, contains 23 genera and 800 species of herbs to trees with a few vines. The family is largely tropical to warm temperate, although there are relatively few species in Malesia and Australia. Viola (400–600 species) is largely herbaceous and…

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References: „Флора на Н Р България”, том VII, Изд. На Б А Н, София, (1979), Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Distribution in Bulgaria: (Conspectus of the Bulgarian Vascular Flora) = conspectus&gs_l= Zlc.


Genus Viola L. - Violets, Pansies, Violet Family


© K.Nanev


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