Galeopsis tetrahit L.

2694 (5). G. tetrahit L., Sp. PL, ed. 1 (1753) 579; Hayek, Prodr. Fl. Penins. Balc., II (1929) 268; Townsend, Fl. Eur., III (1972) 146 — Петниста бударица 

Fam:   Labiatae Juss. (Lamiaceae)
Genus: Galeopsis L. 
Species: Galeopsis tetrahit L.
English Name: Common helm-nettle or Brittlestem helmnettle


Annual plant. Stem 10 - 40 (60) cm high, straight, branched, edges bristly and only two opposite walls with adjacent hairs; the internodes under the nodes swollen. Leaves 1 - 4 cm long, lance to ovate lance, 3 - 8 cm long and 1.5 - 5 cm wide, basically rounded, rarely wedge-shaped, tipped, edge on both sides with 4 - 12 large, more or less rounded teeth with  scaterred affectionate hairs. The bracts are lance, bristly, shorter than the calyx. Blossoms 2 - 7 in the vertebrae in the bosom of the upper leaves. The calyx 12 - 14mm long, bell-shaped, scattered glandular, with protruding veins, bristly, sometimes barely naked; the teeth are almost equal to the tube, at the base with long reeds, to the top with glandular hairs. Corolla 15 - 20 (-28) mm long, pink, less common white or pale yellow with darker spots, outside fibrous; the tube equal to or slightly longer than the calyx; the upper lip on the top unevenly jagged; the lower one with a wide, entire or slightly incised, flat, almost square middle share. Nuts back ovoid 2.5 - 3mm long and about 2mm wide, rounded on the outside, inside with a double mouth, in the upper part bearded, gray with spots.

Business significance. Medicinal plant containing 5 - 10% mineral substances, of which about 10% silicic acid, as well as tannins and saponins. Honey. The seeds contain 40 - 50% dried fatty oil, which produces a benign beige.

From  „Флора на Н. Р. България”, том IX, БАН, София, (1989)

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Galeopsis tetrahit (common hemp-nettle or brittlestem hempnettle) is a flowering plant in the family Lamiaceae, native to Europe and northwestern Asia.
It is a herbaceous annual plant growing to 1 m tall; it is a pioneer species and thrives on disturbed sites or roadsides. The plant looks like mint but is taller. The stems have reflexed hairs and swollen nodes. In cross section, the stem is square. The leaves are rhombic to elliptic, with coarsely to bluntly serrate edges. The flowers are multicoloured, with purple, pink, or white areas;[1] diminutive, bilateral and snapdragon-like, and are mostly visited by bumblebees.[2]
The species is considered by some authorities to have arisen as a natural hybrid between Galeopsis pubescens and Galeopsis speciosa.


Common hemp-nettle is an erect annual plant and grows to a height of about 20 to 70 cm (8 to 28 in). The stem branches occasionally and is squarish and hairy, with glandular hairs on the upper part of the plant. The nodes are swollen and widely spaced and the pale green, stalked leaves are in opposite pairs. The leaf blades are hairy and are ovate with a long tapered tip and with regular large teeth on the margin. The inflorescence forms a terminal spike and is composed of whorls of pinkish flowers with dark markings on the lower lip. The calyx has five sharp-pointed lobes and the corolla forms a two-lipped flower about 15 to 20 mm (0.6 to 0.8 in) long with a fused tube. The upper lip of each flower is convex with dense, glandular hairs and the lower lip is three-lobed, the central lobe being the largest, squarish with a flat or rounded edge. There are four stamens, two long and two short, the gynoecium has two fused carpels and the fruit is a four-chambered schizocarp. The plant has a slightly unpleasant smell.[3]

Distribution and habitat

Common hemp-nettle is native to Europe and northwestern Asia. Its typical habitat is rough ground, arable land, logging clearances and waste places. It spreads readily as its sharp calyces adhere to clothing and animal pelts.[3]

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Flowering Time: Blooms: VII - VIII.

References: „Флора на Н. Р. България”, том IX, БАН, София, (1989), Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Distribution in Bulgaria: Grow on dry grassy and rocky places, as well as weeds in wheat cultures, vetch, flax, alfalfa and in some trenches. Widespread, mainly in the foothills and in the mountainous areas up to 1200 m altitude. (Conspectus of the Bulgarian Vascular Flora) = conspectus&gs_l= Zlc.

Distribution: Europe and Asia. Transferred to North America.

Conservation status and threats: not protected species in Bulgaria by the Biodiversity Law. - Biological Diversity Act -

Medical plant: yes, it is - Medicinal Plants Act -

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.


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