Himantoglossum caprinum (M. Bieb. ) Sprengel

Fam: Orchidaceae   Lindl. 
Genus:  .Himantoglossum W. D. Koch
Species: Himantoglossum caprinum (M. Bieb. ) Sprengel
English Name: Lizard orchid,


Himantoglossum caprinum (M.-Bieb.) Sprengel


Beschreibung: Pflanze groß und kräftig, 40 - 80 cm hoch. Laubblätter 7 - 10, am Stengel verteilt. Die grundständigen Blätter sind 7 -12 cm lang und 1,5 - 3,5 cm breit. Die höher am Stengel angeordneten Blätter sind kleiner. Der Blütenstand ist langgestreckt und ausladend, bis zu 30 cm lang und trägt 15 - 50 locker angeordnete Blüten. Die unteren Tragblätter sind doppelt so lang wie die Blüten, die oberen etwa gleich lang. Die Sepalen und Petalen bilden einen geschlossenen Helm, der auf der Außenseite grün, entlang der Ränder und Nerven aber rotbraun gefärbt ist. Die seitlichen Sepalen sind 13 - 15 mm lang und am Ende abgestumpft, die Petalen 11 - 12 mm lang. Die Lippe ist tief dreilappig, der Mittellappen 3,5 - 7 cm lang, die Seitenlappen kürzer und nur 0,9 - 1,0 cm lang. Der Mittellappen ist am Grunde tief gespalten. Die Farbe der Lippe variiert von fast rein grün bis dunkel rotbraun, die Lippenbasis ist heller gefärbt und mit dunkelroten Papillen besetzt. Der Sporn ist abwärts gekrümmt, mit 4 - 6mm Länge etwa 1/3 so lang wie der Fruchtknoten und hell gefärbt. Die Pflanze besitzt einen schwachen Geruch.
Blütezeit: Ende Mai bis Ende Juli.
Höhenverbreitung: Von der Küste bis etwa 1500 m.
Standort: Die Pflanze ist kalkliebend und wächst auf Weiderasen und in lichten
Eichenwäldern, seltener auf Ödland.
Naturschutz: Selten und durch Landwirtschaft gefährdet.
Bastarde: Möglicherweise Bastardierung mit H. affine und H. calcaratum.
Bildnachweis: 30. 7. 1980, Budapest (Ungarn), H. Baumann.
"Die wildwachsende Orchideen Europas", H. Baumann, S. Künkele, Kosmos, Stuttgart, (1982),

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Himantoglossum caprinum (M.-Bieb.) Sprengel

Description: Plant tall and strong, 40 - 80 cm high. Leaves 7 - 10, distributed on the stem. The basal leaves are 7 -12 cm long and 1.5 - 3.5 cm wide. The higher on the stem arranged leaves are smaller. The inflorescence is elongated and spreading, up to 30 cm long and carries 15 - 50 loosely arranged flowers. The lower bracts are twice as long as the flowers, that top about the same length. The sepals and petals form a closed helmet, the green on the outside, along the edges and nerves but is reddish brown. The lateral sepals are 13-15 mm long and blunted at the end of the petals 11 - 12 mm long. The lip is deeply trilobate, the middle lobe from 3.5 to 7 cm long, lateral lobes shorter and only 0.9 - 1.0 cm long. The middle lobe is deeply divided at the base. The color of the lip varies from almost pure green to dark reddish brown, the lip base is lighter in color and covered with dark red papillae. The spur is curved downward, with 4 - 6mm length, about 1/3 as long as the ovary and colored bright. The plant has a faint odor.
Flowering time: end of May to the end of July.
Height Spread: From the coast to about 1500 m.
Habitat: The plant is calcicolous and grows on pasture grass and thin oak forests, rare on wasteland.
Conservation: Rare and endangered by agriculture.
Bastards: Maybe hybridization with H. affine and H. calcaratum.
Origin pictures:  30. 7. 1980, Budapest (Hungary), H. Baumann
"Die wildwachsende Orchideen Europas", H. Baumann, S. Künkele, Kosmos, Stuttgart, (1982),

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Note: This orchid species is not presenterd in "Флора на НР България", том II, БАН, София, (1964),

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Himantoglossum caprinum is a species of orchid native to southeastern Europe and the Middle East.[2][1][3]
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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RED DATA BOOK - Electron edittion

Himantoglossum caprinum

Himantoglossum caprinum (M. Bieb.) Spreng.

Himantoglossum hircinum auct. non (L.) Spreng.3, 4

Orchidaceae – Orchid family

Conservation status. Vulnerable [VU B2b(ii,iv)c(iv)]. BDA, HD(IIb), BC, CITES(2).

Morphology and biology. Perennial plant with 2 ovoid tubers. Stems 30–90 cm, with 5–8 grey-green, elliptical leaves. Inflorescences with 20–40 flowers, lax. Sepals and petals form a hood, violet-white, with longitudinal stripes. Labellum trilobed, lateral lobes linear, curved, 9–22 mm long, edges waved; the middle lobe very long, 4.5–8.5 cm, slightly twisted, bifurcate at the end. Spur 4.5–7 mm. Fl. VI, fr. VII. Insect pollination. Reproduction by seeds.

Habitats and populations. Open sunny places, more often on stony limestone soil, extensively used pastures, among shrubs and forest glades in light deciduous forests. Populations usually cover small areas (up to 0.01–1 ha) and comprise up to 50–100 plants, rarely more. Localities with up to 5 ha have been observed only rarely, but these usually have very low densities.

Distribution in Bulgaria. Locally in the whole country; up to 1100 m alt. More common in the karst areas of the Forebalkan, Balkan Range, Znepole Region, Rhodopi Mts (eastern).

General distribution. SE Europe (to Slovakia, Hungary and Slovenia northwestwards).

Threats. Local distribution and strongly fragmented populations; afforestation with pines; overgrazing during flowering and fruiting period; abandonment of some territories (in the last decades). In the 1970–80s the change of land use of so called “abandoned areas” into summer house areas resulted in the destruction of many populations.

Conservation measures taken. Protected species by the Biodiversity Act. Some of the localities fall in protected areas (Sinite Kamani, Rusenski Lom and Shumensko Plateau Nature Parks; Longoza, Ostritsa and Alibotush Strict Nature Reserves; Lakatnishki Skali, Likana and Dupkata Protected Sites, etc.), as well as in many sites of the European ecological network Natura 2000 in Bulgaria.

Conservation measures needed. Preserving the habitats of the species and their sustainable management; raising public awareness about the conservation value of the species.

References. Stojanov 1964; Petrova & Gjuleva 1994; Petrova et al. 2001; Radoslavova 2002; Gerasimova & Petrova 2003; Grozeva et al 2004; Delforge 2006.

Author: Antoaneta Petrova

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