Humulus lupinus L.
682. (1). Н. lupulus L.
Genus: Humulus L.
Species: Humulus lupinus L.
English Name: Hop or Hops
682. (1). H. lupulus L. (herbaceous perennial plant) - In the bushes throughout Bulgaria, mainly along rivers and in wet places
Blooms: VII - VIII. (T, L). FIG. 384.
(up to 1000 m altitude).
Lately, it is grown in Bulgaria also the cultural form.
From: „Флора на България”, Н. Стоянов, Б. Стефанов, Б. Китанов, „Наука и изкуство”, Четвърто преработено и допълнено издание, Част I, София (1966)
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Humulus lupulus (common hop or hops) is a species of flowering plant in the hemp family (Cannabaceae), native to Europe, western Asia and North America. It is a perennial, herbaceous climbing plant which sends up new shoots in early spring and dies back to a cold-hardy rhizome in autumn. It is dioecious (separate male and female plants).
Hops are sometimes described as bine plants rather than vines because, they have stiff downward facing hairs that provide stability and allow them to climb. These shoots allow H. lupulus to grow anywhere from 4.6 to 6.1 metres (15 to 20 ft). Hops have fragrant, wind-pollinated flowers that attract butterflies.
The female cone shaped fruits from H. lupulus are used by breweries to preserve and flavor beer, and so H. lupulus is widely cultivated for use by the brewing industry. The fragrant flower cones, known as hops, impart a bitter flavor, and also have aromatic and preservative qualities. H. lupulus contains myrcene, humulene, xanthohumol, myrcenol, linalool, tannins, and resin.
The genus name Humulus is a Medieval name that was at some point Latinized after being borrowed from a Germanic source exhibiting the h•m•l consonant cluster, as in Middle Low German homele. According to Soviet Iranist V. Abaev this could be a word of Sarmatian origin which is presented in modern Ossetian language (Ossetian: Хуымæллæг) and derives from proto-Iranian hauma-arayka, an Aryan haoma. From Sarmatian dialects this word spread across Eurasia, thus creating a group of related words in Turkic, Finno-Ugric, Slavic and Germanic languages (see Russian: хмель, Chuvash хăмла, Finnish humala, Hungarian komló, Mordovian комла, Avar хомеллег).
The specific epithet, lupulus, is Latin for small wolf. The name refers to the plant's tendency to strangle other plants, mainly osiers or basket willows (Salix viminalis), like a wolf does a sheep. Hops could be seen growing over these willows so often that it was named the willow-wolf.
The English word hop is derived from the Middle Dutch word hoppe, also meaning Humulus lupulus.
Humulus lupulus is a perennial herbaceous plant up to 10 meters tall, living up to 20 years. It has simple leaves with 3-5 deep lobes that can be opposite or alternate . The staminate (male) flowers do not have petals, while the pistillate (female) flowers’ petals completely cover the fruit. The cones found on female plants are called strobili. The fruit of H. lupulus is an achene, meaning that the fruit is dry and does not split open at maturity. The achene is surrounded by tepals and lupulin-secreting glands are concentrated on the fruit.
Humulus lupulus grows best in the latitude range of 38°-51° in full sun with moderate amounts of rainfall. It uses the longer summer days as a cue for when to flower,  which is usually around July/ August.
Humulus lupulus can cause dermatitis to some who handle them. It is estimated that about 1 in 30 people are affected by this.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Flowering Time: Blooms: VII - VIII. Distribution in Bulgaria: In the bushes throughout Bulgaria, mainly along rivers and in wet places . (Conspectus of the Bulgarian Vascular Flora) = conspectus&gs_l= Zlc.
Conservation status and threats: not protected species in Bulgaria by the Biodiversity Law. - Biological Diversity Act - http://eea.government.bg/bg/legislation/biodiversity/zbran_22.08.15.pdf
Medical plant: no, it is not - Medicinal Plants Act - http://eea.government.bg/bg/legislation/biodiversity/ZLR_en.pdf
References: „Флора на България”, Н. Стоянов, Б. Стефанов, Б. Китанов, „Наука и изкуство”, Четвърто преработено и допълнено издание, Част I, София (1966), Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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