Iris graminea L.

618 (4). I. Graminea L. Sp. Pl. ed. 1 (1753) 39; Hayek Prodr. Fl. Penins. Balc, III (1933) 124 — Треволистна перуника

Fam: Iridaceae Lindl. 
Genus:   Iris L.
Species: Iris graminea L.
English Name: Grass-Leaved Flag, Grass leaved Iris, Plum Iris and Plum tart Iris


Perennial 15 - 60 cm high plant. Rhizome thin. Stem flattened, shorter than leaves, with 1 - 2 flowers. Leaves sword-close or closely linear, 5 - 10 mm wide with a few clearly visible veins. Bracts lanceolate, grassy, at the end tunicates, with sharp dorsal edge. Flowers with stems, long to 6 cm. Perianth tube funnel-shaped, shorter than ovary. Perianth leaflets light purple with dark streaks, external nearly rounded, at the base narrowed in egg-shaped claw, separated the extended portion of narrowing, internal broad lance, with short claw. Fruit box suddenly narrowed at the top of small beak, hexagonal with 3 wide and 3 narrow walls. Pear seeds.

Economic importance. It is used for decorative purposes. Visited by bees as giving nectar.

From „Флора на НР България”, том II, БАН, София, (1964)

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Iris graminea, is a species in the genus Iris belonging to the subgenus Limniris, in particular the series Spuriae. It is a rhizomatous perennial, with purple or violet blue flowers almost hidden by narrow, grass-like leaves, and a plum scented fragrance. It is cultivated as an ornamental plant in temperate regions. It has several common names, including Grass-Leaved Flag, Grass leaved Iris, Plum Iris and Plum tart Iris (because of the scent). This species naturally occurs in the southern half of Europe, from Spain and France in the West to Russia and the Caucasus in the East.


It has slender,[2] short, hard rhizomes.[3][4][5] They can have many branches creating dense tufts, clumps or tussocks of plants.[6][7][8]
It has narrow grass-like foliage.[5][6][7][9][10][11][12][13] They can grow up to between 30–100 cm (12–39 in) long and 0.5-1.5 cm wide.[5][7][8][10][14][15][16]
The leaves can be shiny,[15][17] and bright green above,[8][12][16] and pale grey-green (or blue green) below.[4] Some plants can have dark green leaves.[18][19]
They have strongly, visible longitudinal veins.[20]
The leaves are longer than the flowering stems.[8][11][18][21][22][23][24]
After the plant has flowered, the foliage has the tendency to extend.[11] Later, the deciduous foliage, dies back during the winter.[15]
Iris graminea has a flattened stem,[5] with distinct edges.[4]
That grows up to between 10–60 cm (4–24 in) long.[9][11][12][16][17][22][23][24][25][26]
The stems have 1-2 spathes (leaves of the flower bud),[24] which are unequal in size.[27] The lower is larger and rather leaf-like.[27]
The stems hold 1-2 terminal (top of stem) flowers,[5][11][12][16][22][24] blooming between spring,[16] and summer,[6][8][9][16] between May and June.[3][7][11][21]
The stems are normally, unbranched,[28] but (if they have a second flower), the pedicel, is up to 6 cm long.[4]
The large flowers are 6–8 cm (2–3 in) in diameter,[6][11][12][18][23][24] they are larger than Iris sintenisii flowers. They have a strong scent (or fragrance),[17] which can be variously described as similar to freesias,[14] or fruity,[6][9] or smell of ripe plums,[5][8][10][11][12][22][26] or apricots,[22] or greengages[21][27] or between grapes and plum tarts.[7]
The flowers come in a range of shades, from purple,[7][15][26] blue-violet,[5][6][8][10][21][22][24] purple violet[11][16] violet crimson,[18] reddish purple,[5][9][12][25][26][29] violet,[17] lavender,[17] and blue.[30]
It has 2 pairs of petals, 3 large sepals (outer petals), known as the 'falls' and 3 inner, smaller petals (or tepals, known as the 'standards'.[12] The falls have a long haft or claw, (section closest to the stem) and a small rounded or oval blade.[5][10][24] They are 3–5 cm (1–2 in) long.[31] The centre of the blade has a pale yellow,[8][11] or white central area,[29] which is veined with violet,[8][10][11][12][16][22][24][25] purple,[28] or blue.[6][22] Some references describe a dark purple area with white veining.[30] The claw is sometimes winged, and tinged with green or brown,[23][25] or veined deep reddish-purple.[24] The erect, standards are purple blue,[10] or purple,[11][22][24] or red-violet,[25] They are 2–5 cm (1–2 in) long,[31] with green or brown shade at the base.[31]
It has a long and arching, purple style branch,[8][11][24][25] (that is long as the haft),[10] and has a dark purple centre stripe.[10] They have a brown base.[23]
It has an ovary with double ridges, a 2 pointed stigma and pollen that is orange-red.[5] It has also has a short perianth tube.[4]
After the iris has flowered, it produces a 3–4 cm (1–2 in) long seed capsule,[30] which has a narrowed point.[18] Inside the capsule, are pear shaped seeds,[4][18] which are slightly compressed and flattened.[18]


It is pronounced as (Iris) EYE-ris (graminea) gram-IN-ee-a.[16][17]
It is known as Iris à feuilles de graminées or Iris de Bayonne in France,[34] and Giaggiolo susino in Italy.[35][36] It is known as kosaciec trawolistny in Polish, and Iris trávolistý in Czechoslovakia.[37] and it is known as zlakovidny iris in Russia,[13][18][29][38] and gräsiris in Swedish,(meaning grass iris).[39][40]
The Latin specific epithet graminea refers to grassy due to the grass-like leaves.[10][11][41]
It has common names of Grass-Leaved Flag (in the US)[16][17] or Grass leaved Iris,[12][24][33] Plum Iris,[33][42] and Plum tart Iris,[9][15][23] or Plum scented Iris, (because of the scent).[7][10][11][26]
It was originally published and described by Carl Linnaeus in Species Plantarum Vol.1 page39 on 1 May 1753.[32][40][43]
It was later published by Ker-Gawler in Curtis's Botanical Magazine Vol.18 page681 in 1803.[24] Then by B. Fedtsch in Flora of SSSR Vol.4 page529 in 1935.[32]
It was verified by United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service on 4 April 2003 and then updated on 1 December 2004.[40]
Iris graminea is an accepted name by the RHS, and it gained the RHS's Award of Garden Merit.[7][12]

Distribution and habitat

It is native to temperate areas of Europe,[2][11][12][31][15][22][23][24][25][32][40] and Asia.[40]


It is widespread from Spain to Russia.[8][11][31][16][25][26]
Within Asia, it is found in the Caucasus regions,[7][8][11][31][16][24][22][25][26][29] of Georgia,[40] and the Russian Federation,[8][11][25] (in Ciscaucasia and Dagestan).[40] Also in Turkey (in Asia Minor).[2][13][22][32]
Within Europe, it is found in Austria,[40] Bulgaria,[2][40][44] Czechoslovakia,[33][40] (in Moravia),[30] Former Yugoslavia,[40] France,[33][40] Germany,[40] Hungary,[40] Italy,[40] Poland,[40] Romania,[2][40] Spain,[2][33][40] Switzerland,[40] and Ukraine,[19][33][40] (in Crimea,[2][26][29]).
It may be naturalized in Moravia,[30] and in Germany.[28]


It is found growing in scrubland,[8][13][33] in grass lands,[8][33] in meadows (or pastures),[39][37] in open woods,[28] and in rocky or gravelly soils of the mountains.[13]


Iris graminea is an 'endangered species' in Czechoslovakia,[45] it is also listed as 'vulnerable' in Hungary.[30]
In Saxony (Germany), it is listed as rare.[33]
It is thought to be extinct in Poland. It was formerly found near Cieszyn.[3]
It has been listed in various Red Data Books.[3]

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Flowering Time: Blooms: V - VI.

References: „Флора на НР България”, том II, БАН, София, (1964), Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Distribution in Bulgaria: Grow in grassy areas and scrub across Bulgaria up to 1000 m altitude. (Conspectus of the Bulgarian Vascular Flora) = conspectus&gs_l= Zlc.

Distribution: Atlantic, Central and Southeast Europe, Mediterranean area, Asia Minor, the Caucasus.

Conservation status and threats: not protected species in Bulgaria by the Biodiversity Law. - Biological Diversity Act -

Medical plant: yes, it is. - Medicinal Plants Act -




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