Laburnum anagiroides Medic.
* L, anagyroides Medic., Vorles II (1787) 363; L. vulgare Griseb., Spicil. Fl Rum. Bithyn I (1843) 7; Cytisus laburnum L., Sp. PI. ed. 1 (1753) 379 — Златен дъжд
Fam: Leguminose Juss. (Fabaceae)
Genus: Laburnum Medic.
Species: Laburnum anagiroides Medic.
English Name: Common laburnum
ħ. Wood to 7.0 meters high, bark dark gray, smooth. Leaves triple; axis 10.0 - 50.0 mm long, fitting short fiber. Leaflets 30.0 - 80.0 mm long and 8.0 - 25.0 mm wide, on short footstalks, elliptical or ovoid elliptical back at the base wedge narrowed the top blunt, entire, green top, naked, beneath gray edge and bottom-fitting thick fibrous. Inflorescences with many blossoms, 10.0 - 25.0 cm long, pendulous. Blossom handles 5.0 - 15.0 mm long, fitting short fiber. Bracts linear, 3.0 - 4.0 mm long, fitting fiber attached to the top of the blossom stem. Calyx 5.0 - 6.0 mm in length and wide, wide bell-shaped, fitting short fiber to 1/3 bilabial; teeth shorter than tube. Corolla golden yellow, naked. Beans 5.0 - 6.0 cm long, fitting short fiber, with 3 - 7 seeds. Seeds lenticular, brown, smooth.
Cultivated as an ornamental in gardens and parks.
L. alpinum (Mill.) Berchtoldet J. Presl, Rostl. Ill (1835) 99 cultivate limited as decorative.
¹ Developed by B. Kouzmanov
Note: introduced, invasive species. Highly toxic - poisonous are the blossoms and seeds, bark and wood. Like contain nicotine alkaloid cytosine, which stimulates the respiratory center in the medulla oblongata, with the result that accelerates and deepens breathing, increases blood pressure.
Compete with native species for nutrients and light, sometimes forming dense monocultures. Attracts insect pollinators, and thus inhibits the pollination of native species. Fix atmospheric nitrogen.
„Флора на НР България”, том VI, БАН, София, (1976)
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Laburnum, commonly called golden chain, is a genus of two species of small trees in the subfamily Faboideae of the pea family Fabaceae. The species are Laburnum anagyroides—common laburnum and Laburnum alpinum—alpine laburnum. They are native to the mountains of southern Europe from France to the Balkan Peninsula.
Some botanists include a third species, Laburnum caramanicum, but this native of southeast Europe and Asia Minor is usually treated in a distinct genus Podocytisus, more closely allied to the brooms.
The Laburnum trees are deciduous. The leaves are trifoliate, somewhat like a clover; the leaflets are typically 2–3 cm (0.8–1.2 in) long in L. anagyroides and 4–5 cm (1.6–2.0 in) long in L. alpinum.
They have yellow pea-flowers in pendulous leafless racemes 10–40 cm (4–12 in) long in spring, which makes them very popular garden trees. In L. anagyroides, the racemes are 10–20 cm (4–8 in) long, with densely packed flowers; in L. alpinum the racemes are 20–30 cm (8–12 in) long, but with the flowers sparsely along the raceme.The fruit develops as a pod and is extremely poisonous,it can be used medicinally.
The yellow flowers are responsible for the old poetic name 'golden chain tree' (also spelled golden chaintree or goldenchain tree).
All parts of the plant are poisonous, and can be lethal if consumed in excess. Symptoms of laburnum poisoning may include intense sleepiness, vomiting, convulsive movements, coma, slight frothing at the mouth and unequally dilated pupils. In some cases, diarrhea is very severe, and at times the convulsions are markedly tetanic. The main toxin in the plant is cytisine, a nicotinic receptor agonist.
It is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species, including the buff-tip.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Flowering Time: Blooms: V - VI.
References: „Флора на НР България”, том VI, БАН, София, (1976), Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Distribution in Bulgaria: Cultivated as an ornamental in gardens and parks. (Conspectus of the Bulgarian Vascular Flora) = conspectus&gs_l= Zlc.
Distribution: Originated from Europe.
Conservation status and threats: not protected species in Bulgaria by the Biodiversity Law. Законодателство на Република България: Закон за биологичното разнообразие
Medical plant: it is not - http://lex.bg/laws/ldoc/2134916096
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