Lamium galeobdolon (L.) Ehrend. et Polatschek

Heist, ех Fabr., Enum. Meth. Pl. (1759) 51; Ball, Fl. Eur., III (1972) 148; Galeobdolon Adans., Fam. Pl., II (1763) 190, 560; Lamium L. sect. Galeobdolon (Adans.) Benth., Lab. Gen. et Sp. (1834) 515.
Monotype Genus.

2689. L. galeobdolon (L.) Ehrend. et Polatschek, Österr. Bot. Zeitschr., CXIII, 1 (1966) 108; Ball, Fl. Eur., III (1972) 148; Galeopsis galeobdolon L., Sp. Pl., ed. 1 (1753) 580 p. p.; Galeobdolon luteum Huds., Fl. Angl., ed. 2 (1778) 258; Lamium galeobdolon (L.) L., Cent. Pl., II (1756) 54; Стоян., Стеф., Фл. Бълг., изд. 1, II (1925) 942; Hayek, Prodr. Fl. Penins. Balc., II (1929) 271 — Жълта мъртва коприва 

Fam:   Labiatae Juss. (Lamiaceae)
Genus:   Lamium L.
Species: Lamium galeobdolon (L.) Ehrend. et Polatschek
English Name: Yellow archangel, Artillery plant, or Aluminium plant


Perennial plant.. The rhizome is short, slanting, forming upright stems and sheds, rooted in the nodes with adventive roots. Stems 15 - 60 cm tall, scarce to thick short fibrous. Leaves with stems,  ovate to round ovoid or lance, 3 - 8 cm long and 2 - 6 cm wide, pointed at the tip, end unevenly serrated, basically cut or slightly heart-shaped; the uppermost inflorescence leaves with short stems or almost seated, ovate or narrowly lance to 3 and 1/2 times longer than broad ones. Blossoms adjacent, gathered 3 to 15 in vertebrae, located in the bosoms of the upper and middle stem leaves. The calyx tubular bell-shaped, 7 - 10 mm long, naked or fibrous, with 5 veins and 5 almost identical triangular teeth, on the top long, strikingly pointed, after blossoming spread out. Corolla 14 - 25 mm long, light to golden yellow with blooming spots, twin; the tube is straight 7 - 10 mm long, over the base slightly pressed, in the upper part expanded, inside with a loosely arranged ring of hairs; upper lip straight, helmet, 10 - 12 mm long, moss with cloves at the end; the lower lip 3-sided with more or less the same shares, the middle one most often triangular, sharp with brown spots. The stamens hidden beneath the upper lip, with yellow, outstretched, bare anthers. Nuts about 3 mm long, back ovate, truncated, on the top flat, black, smooth.


Subsp. galeobdolon; Lamium galeobdolon subsp. vulgare (Pers.) Hayek, Prod. Fl. Penins. . Balc., II (1929) 272; Ball, op. c., 149; Pollichia vulgare Pers. in Usteri, Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. (Pari), XIV (1805) 39; Galeobdolon vulgare Pers., Syn. P., ed. 1, II (1806) 122; Lamium galeobdolon var. vulgare (Pers.) Briq., Lab. Alp. Marit. (1893) 319; Stoyan., Stef, FL. Bulg., Ed. 2 (1933) 864. The lowermost leaves are no longer than the internals, and the upper ones 1 to 2 times longer than broad, dull jagged. Blossom vertebrae usually with no more than 8 blossoms. Corolla 17 - 21 mm long. Distributed.
Subsp. montanum (Pers.) Ehrend. et Polatschek, op. c. (1966) 109; Ball, op. c. (1972) 149; Lamium galeobdolon subsp. montanum (Pers.) Hayek, op. c. (1929) 272; Pollichia montana Pers. in Usteri, 1st c.; Lamium galeobdolon war. montanum (Pers.) Briq., op. c. (1893) 318; Stoyan., Steph., Op. c. (1933) 865. The lowermost leaves are as long as the bellows, or two times longer than the top, and the uppermost 1 and 1/2 to 3 and 1/2 times longer than the broad, sharp toothed. Blossom vertebrae (8-) 10 to 15-blossom. The crown is 18 - 25 mm long.
F. montana; Lamium galeobdolon var. typicum f. kirtum G. Beck, Fl. Südbosn. Ann. Naturh. Mus. (Wien) II (1887) 144 et Fl. Nieder-Öster., II. 2 (1983) 1018; L. galeobdolon var. puberulum Beck, 1st c. Leaves and stem most often roughly fibrous. The calyx thickly covered with hairs. Distributed.
F. glabrescens G. Beck, op. c, (1983) 1018; Lamium galeobdolon subsp. montanum f. glabrescens (G. Beck) Hayek, 1st c .; L. galeobdolon var. montanum f. glabrescens, Стоян., Стеф., Кит., Фл. Бълг., изд., 4, II (1967) 909. The upper internodes of the stem, the leaves and the calyx are naked or almost naked. Distributed.

¹ Developed Iv. Assenov

From „Флора на Н Р България”, том IX, БАН, София, (1989)

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Lamium galeobdolon, commonly known as yellow archangel, artillery plant, or aluminium plant, is a widespread wildflower in Europe, and has been introduced elsewhere as a garden plant. It displays the zygomorphic flower morphology, opposite leaves, and square stems typical of the mint family, Lamiaceae. The flowers are soft yellow and borne in axial clusters, with a prominent 'hood' (the dorsal lobe of the corolla). It spreads easily and so has been commonly used as an ornamental ground cover. It can be invasive in places where it is not native and caution must be taken when planting in these areas.[2]


Yellow archangel is a large-leaved perennial plant with underground runners growing to a height of about 40 to 80 cm (16 to 31 in). The paired opposite leaves are stalked, broadly ovate with a cordate base and toothed margin. The underside of the leaves is often purplish. The flowers grow in whorls in a terminal spike. The calyx is five-lobed. The corolla is yellow, 15 to 25 mm (0.6 to 1.0 in) long, the petals fused with a long tube and two lips. The upper lip is hooded and the lower lip has three similar-sized lobes with the central one being triangular and often streaked with orange. There are two short stamens and two long ones. The carpels are fused and the fruit is a four-chambered schizocarp.[3]


There are a number of closely related taxa which hybridize with L. galeobdolon and in some cases are not unequivocally accepted as distinct species but considered subspecies or varieties by many authors.[citation needed] Most well-known among these is variegated yellow archangel (subsp. argentatum), whose leaves often have variegation, showing as silver patches arranged as a wide semicircle. This, and in particular its large-flowered and even stronger-marked cultivar 'variegatum', is the taxon most often met with as a garden escapee.


It is native to Europe, and found through Europe and Western Asia.[4]
An introduced species in the USA, Washington State has declared it a "noxious weed" and banned its sale.[5]

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Lamium galeobdolon (L.) L. is an accepted name

This name is the accepted name of a species in the genus Lamium (family Lamiaceae).
The record derives from WCSP (data supplied on 2012-03-23) which reports it as an accepted name (record 107452) with original publication details: Amoen. Acad. 4: 485 1759.

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Flowering Time: Blooms: IV - VII.

References: „Флора на Н Р България”, том IX, БАН, София, (1989), Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia,

Distribution in Bulgaria: Grow in humid shady places through forests and shrubs. Widespread in the foothills and mountains mainly in beech and spruce forests up to 1500 m altitude. (Conspectus of the Bulgarian Vascular Flora) = conspectus&gs_l= Zlc.

Distribution: Europe (less frequently in the Mediterranean area and the northernmost parts), the Caucasus, Southwestern Asia (to northern Iran).

Conservation status and threats: not protected species in Bulgaria by the Biodiversity Law. - Biological Diversity Act -

Medical plant: it is not - Medicinal Plants Act -

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.


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