Lathyrus vernus (L.) Bernh.

1876 (1). L. vernus (L.) Bernh., Syst. Verz. Erfurt (1800) 247; Hayek, Pfodr. Fl. Penins. Balc. I (1926) 821; Ball, Fl. Eur. II (1968) 138; Orobus vernus L., Sp. PI. ed. 1 (1753) 728; Vel., Fl. Bulg. (1891) 160; Exs.: Pl Bulg. Exsicc. № 678 — Пролетно секирче

Fam:   Leguminose Juss. (Fabaceae)
Genus:   Lathyrus L.
Species: Lathyrus vernus (L.) Bernh.
English Name: Spring vetchling, Spring pea, or Spring vetch


Perennial plants. Rhizome canary and bold, with numerous fibrous roots. Stems mostly single, rarely several, (20.0) 25.0 - 30.0 (40.0) cm high, upright, with vague 4 edge, not branched, without wings, naked. Stipule (7.0) 10.0 - 20.0 (22.0) mm long and 2.0 - 6.0 mm wide, much narrower than small leaflets, 2 - 4 times shorter than the petiole, rarely equal to it, wider than the stem, oval oval Lancet, semi sagittate, rarely linear, naked. Leaf axis with short small awn. small leaflets (2) 3 - 4 pairs (1.5) 2.5 - 4.0 (-6.0) cm long and (3.0) 5.0 - 14.0 (-17.0) mm wide, 2 - 5 times longer than petiole, lanceolate, linear lanceolate, to ovate lanceolate, the top tapered awn, bare, with distinctly feathery streaks; lateral veins much thinner than the central and do not reach the top. Inflorescence handles longer than bract leaf or equal to him, naked or short fiber dispersed. Bracts absent. Blossom handles shorter than the calyx, naked. Blossoms (1) 4 - 6 (8), (14.0) 15.0 - 18.0 (20.0) mm long, gathered in clusters. The calyx 1/3 - 1/4 of the length of the corolla, with 5 - 7 vague streaks, naked; teeth lanceolate to lance cuneiform, unequal to each other, the lower of 1/2 - 1/3 of the length of the tube. Corolla red, purple, later bluish, flag 12.0 - 15.0 mm in length and 4.0 - 6.0 mm wide, ovoid back, on top incised, in the middle narrower broad claw equal to wings, tongue short, 1/5 of the nail. Wings with back ovoid leaf blade, equal to nail, tongue 1/5 of the nail. Keel 11.0 - 12.0 mm long and 5.0 - 6.0 mm wide, with elliptical triangular, gradually curved at its widest part, the top sometimes short pointed leaf blade. Beans 4.0 - 5.0 (6.0) cm long and 5.0 - 7.0 mm wide, brown, linear, goal, covered with a large network of veins. Seeds 8 - 10 (12), spherical, brown, marble pattern, smooth; scar 1/3 the circumference of the seed, convex, linear triangular.
From: „Флора на НР България”, том VI, БАН, София, (1976)


f. vernus. Petals broadly ovate lanceolate, 6.0 - 15.0 mm wide. Widespread.
f. angustifolius (Schur) Rouyet Fouc., Fl. Fr. V (1899) 272; Hayek, op. c. p. 822; Orobus angustifolius Schur, Enum. PL Transs. (1866) 172. The upper petals linear. Lower  lancet, 3.0 - 5.0 (6.0) mm wide. Widespread.

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Lathyrus vernus syn. Orobus vernus (spring vetchling, spring pea, or spring vetch) is a species of flowering herbaceous perennial plant in the genus Lathyrus, native to forests of Europe and Siberia. It forms a dense clump of pointed leaves with purple flowers in spring, shading to a greenish-blue with age.[1]


Lathyrus vernus is a perennial plant with an upright stem without wings. The stem grows to 20 to 40 cm (8 to 16 in) and is erect and nearly hairless. The leaves are alternate with short stalks and large, wide stipules. The leaf blades are pinnate with two to four pairs of ovate tapering leaflets with blunt tips, entire margins and no tendrils. The inflorescence has a long stem and three to ten purplish-red flowers, each 13 to 20 mm (0.5 to 0.8 in) long, turning bluer as they age. These have five sepals and five petals and are irregular. The uppermost petal is known as the "standard", the lateral two as the "wings" and the lowest two are joined to form the "keel". There are ten stamens and a single carpel. The fruit is a long brown pod up to 60 mm (2.4 in) in length containing eight to fourteen seeds which are poisonous. This plant flowers early in the year, in May and June. It can be distinguished from bitter vetch (L. linifolius) and black pea (L. niger) by the breadth of its ovate leaflets. It does not wither after flowering but continues to grow until autumn.[4]
Distribution and habitat
Lathyrus vernus is native to Europe and parts of northern Asia. Its typical habitat is broad-leaved woodland, forest margins, plantations and clearings.[4]
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Flowering Time: Blooms: IV - VI, fruitful: V - VII.

References: „Флора на НР България”, том VI, БАН, София, (1976), Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Distribution in Bulgaria: In scrub and oak forests in the mountains and foothills. Widespread to 1200 meters altitude. (Conspectus of the Bulgarian Vascular Flora) = conspectus&gs_l= Zlc.

Distribution: Europe (excluding the northern and southern parts), Caucasus, Southwest Asia (Asia Minor), Siberia

Conservation status and threats: not protected species in Bulgaria by the Biodiversity Law. Законодателство на Република България: Закон за биологичното разнообразие

Medical plant: yes, it is -


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